همسوئی امنیتی چین و روسیه در رویارویی با تهدیدات ایالات متحده

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته روابط بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد یار گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

4 استاد گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.22034/irr.2020.118881

چکیده

پایان جنگ سرد نقطه عطفی در سیاست بین‌الملل بود. فروپاشی اتحاد جماهیر شوروی ساختار دو قطبی نظام بین‌المللی را در هم شکست و مسیر را برای ایالات متحده آمریکا هموار کرد که تنها ابرقدرت باقی مانده در جهان باشد. در این میان روابط جمهوری خلق چین به عنوان دومین قدرت اقتصادی جهان و فدراسیون روسیه به عنوان میراث‌دار ابرقدرت شرق واجد اهمیت خاصی است. چین و روسیه روابط پر فراز و نشیبی را در طول تاریخ خود از سرگذرانده‌اند. به عنوان مثال، می‌توان به حمایت‌های اتحاد جماهیر شوروی از حکومت کمونیستی جمهوری خلق چین در دهه 1950 میلادی و تیره‌گی روابط در اواخر این دهه و دهه‌ی 1960میلادی و سردی روابط در دو دهه‌ی پس از آن یاد کرد. هرچند «گورباچف» اقداماتی را برای نزدیکی با چین در سال 1989 میلادی آغاز کرد، اما این فروپاشیِ اتحاد جماهیر شوروی و پایان جنگ سرد بود که نقطه‌ی عطفی در تعاملات و همکاری‌های دو کشور رقم زد. پس از پایان غرب‌گرایی اولیه در سیاست خارجی فدراسیون روسیه در سال 1993 میلادی و غالب شدن رویکرد اورآسیا گرایی بر سیاست خارجی این کشور، به تدریج روسیه همکاری‌های خود را با همسایه قدیمی، چین گسترش داد. در طول قریب به سه دهه از آن زمان، ما شاهد تقویت همکاری‌های فیمابین و گسترش حوزه‌‌های همکاری به بخش‌های ژئوپلیتیکی و ژئواکونومیکی بودیم. در ابتدا پایان دادن به اختلافات مرزهای مشترک در دستور کار دو کشور قرار گرفت و سپس همکارهای سیاسی، اقتصادی و نهایتاً امنیتی و نظامی در پیش گرفته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

US security threats against China and Russia and the formation of a security alignment (strategic partnership) between the two countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • meysam zakizadeh 1
  • alireza mosavizadeh 2
  • mehdi zakeriyanamiri 3
  • behzad shahandeh 4

1 PhD Student in International Relations, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor Yar Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Professor, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The end of the Cold War was a turning point in international politics. The collapse of the Soviet Union shattered the bipolar structure of the international system and paved the way for the United States to remain the only superpower left in the world. Meanwhile, the relationship between the People's Republic of China as the world's second largest economic power and the Russian Federation the heir to the Eastern superpower is of particular importance. China and Russia have gone through ups and downs in their history. For example, the Soviet Union's support for the communist government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s, the darkening of relations in the late 1960s and 1960s, and the coldness of relations in the two decades that followed. Although Gorbachev took steps to get closer to China in 1989, it was the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War that marked a turning point in the two countries' interactions and cooperation. After the early Westernization of Russian foreign policy in 1993 and the rise of the Eurasianist approach to Russian foreign policy, Russia gradually expanded its cooperation with its old neighbor, China. For nearly three decades, we have seen the strengthening of cooperation between the two countries and the expansion of areas of cooperation to the geopolitical and geoeconomic sectors. First, ending the border disputes was on the agenda of the two countries, and then political, economic, and ultimately security and military partners were put in place.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • China
  • Russia
  • the United States
  • security threats aligning security
  • Strategic Partnership
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