درک متقابل بریتانیا و ایالات متحده از اهمیت رابطه ویژه: از ملی‌شدن نفت ایران تا توافق برجام

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری در گروه مطالعات بریتانیا، دانشکده مطالعات جهان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مطالعات اروپا، دانشکده مطالعات جهان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22034/irr.2021.130931

چکیده

اصطلاح رابطه ویژه برای توصیف روابط بریتانیا و ایالات متحده و همکاری‌های گسترده اقتصادی، نظامی، و دیپلماتیک دو کشور پس از جنگ جهانی دوم به کار می‌رود. نهضت ملی‌شدن نفت ایران یکی از نخستین و ‌‌توافق هسته‌ای برجام یکی از مهمترین مسائلی هستند که بریتانیا و آمریکا پس از برقراری رابطه ویژه با آن روبرو شده‌اند؛ رویدادهایی که می‌توانند برای درک عمیق‌تر از رابطه ویژه، مورد مطالعه قرار گیرند. در همین راستا، پرسش اصلی پژوهش حاضر این بود که چگونه بریتانیا و ایالات متحده، با درک متقابل از اهمیت رابطه ویژه، حتی در وضعیت تضاد منافع نیز به دنبال حفظ رابطه ویژه بوده و هستند؟ در پاسخ به این پرسش و با بهره‌گیری از روش اسنادی و مطالعه روابط این دو متحد استراتژیک در دوران‌ ملی‌شدن نفت ایران و توافق برجام در چهارچوب تئوریک نظریه اتحاد، این فرضیه مطرح شد که عدم مخالفت ایالات متحده با سیاست‌های ضدایرانی بریتانیا در دوران‌ ملی‌شدن نفت ایران، و متقابلا عدم مخالفت جدی بریتانیا با ایالات متحده در مسئله برجام، نشان داد که برای بریتانیایی‌ها و ‌آمریکایی‌ها در سیاست خارجی، چیزی بالاتر از رابطه ویژه وجود ندارد و دو کشور به طور متقابل، نیاز به حفظ و تقویت رابطه ویژه را درک کرده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The United Kingdom-United States Mutual Understanding of the Importance of the Special Relationship: From Nationalization of the Iranian Oil Industry to the JCPOA

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sam Mohammadpour 1
  • Mohammad Reza Saeid Abadi 2

1 Ph.D. Candidate at the Department of British Studies, Faculty of World Studies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associated Professor at the Department of European Studies, Faculty of World Studies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The term ‘special relationship’ is used to describe the United Kingdom–United States relations and their extensive economic, military, and diplomatic cooperation since World War II. The nationalization of the Iranian oil industry is one of the first, and the JCPOA nuclear deal is one of the most important issues Britain and the United States have faced since establishing the special relationship; events that can be studied for a deeper understanding of this phenomenon. In this regard, the central question of the present study was how the United Kingdom and the United States have sought to maintain and boost the special relationship, even in a situation of conflict of interest. In response to this question, and using the documentary method and studying the two strategic allies’ relations during the nationalization of Iranian oil and the JCPOA in the theoretical framework of the alliance theory, the main hypothesis was that the United States' support for British anti-Iranian policies during the nationalization of Iranian oil, and reciprocally, lack of serious British opposition to the United States’ withdrawal from the JCPOA, showed that there is nothing more special and important than a special relationship in both the British and American foreign policies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • the United States
  • The United Kingdom
  • the JCPOA Agreement
  • The Special Relationship
  • Nationalization of the Iranian Oil Industry
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