چالش حقوق بشر در روابط اتحادیه اروپایی با جمهوری اسلامی ایران از نگاه اسناد اتحادیه اروپا

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی

2 پژوهشگر روابط بین الملل دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی

چکیده

در طول نزدیک به سه دهه اخیر، اتحادیه اروپایی همواره موتور محرکه تهیه پیش‌نویس، گردآوری امضا و بسیج همة امکانات جهت تصویب قطعنامه‌های حقوق بشری علیه ایران در کمیسیون حقوق بشر، کمیته سوم مجمع عمومی و مجمع عمومی بوده است. از سال 2006 به این سو نیز در تمامی اجلاس شورای حقوق بشر و همچنین فرایند مربوط به بررسی گزارش دوره‌ای همگانی جمهوری اسلامی ایران در سال2010، رویکرد تقابلی خود نسبت به ایران را با درجاتی متفاوت، اما همواره خصمانه و منتقدانه حفظ کرده است.

این اتحادیه معتقد است گرچه ایران طی سال‌های اخیر، تغییرات مثبتی به وجود آورده، ولی سابقه حقوق بشر این کشور (در زمینه‌هایی چون موقعیت زنان، ادعاهای مربوط به استفاده از شکنجه، تحت تعقیب قراردادن برخی اقلیت‌های خاص، سرکوب آزادی مطبوعات وغیره) هنوز موجب نگرانی است. اتحادیه باید به عنوان بخشی از تلاش خود برای توسعه روابط نزدیک‌تر با ایران در گفت‌وگوهای نزدیک با این کشور، خود را درگیر این مسائل سازد.

این مسائل باعث شده است که ادعای نقض حقوق بشر همواره در روابط سیاسی دوجانبه تأثیر منفی داشته باشد و این مسئله حتی بر دیگر جوانب روابط نیز تأثیرگذار بوده، تاآنجا‌که اتحادیه اروپایی گسترش روابط تجاری با جمهوری اسلامی ایران را به چالش‌های سیاسی از جمله حقوق بشر منوط کرده است. این مقاله درصدد است چالش‌های روابط دو طرف در زمینه حقوق بشر را با توجه به اسناد درجه یک اتحادیه اروپایی بررسی کرده است و به این سؤال پاسخ دهد که با تکیه بر اسناد، اتحادیه اروپایی چه نگاهی به مسائل حقوق بشر در ایران دارد؟

درمجموع موارد ادعایی نقض حقوق بشر در ایران از سوی اتحادیه اروپایی بر چند موضوع متمرکز است که عبارتند از ادعای وجود شکنجه و مجازات‌های خشن (اعدام، سنگسار وغیره) و نقض حقوق کودک، ادعای نبود کافی آزادی سیاسی و اجتماعی و نهایتاً ادعای نقض حقوق اقلیت‌ها و تبعیض علیه زنان.

روش ما در این مطالعه کتابخانه‌ای و تحلیل محتوای اسناد است. استخراج، ترجمه و دسته‌بندی و تحلیل اسنادنهادهای اتحادیه اروپایی از لابه‌لای سایت‌های این اتحادیه، کاری بس حجیم و سنگین بود که در این مطالعه صورت گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Human Rights Challenge in EU-Iran Relations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Bozorgmehri 1
  • Ali Azizi 2

1 Associate Professor Imam Khomeini International University

2 International Relations Researcher at Imam Khomeini International University

چکیده [English]

For the last three decades, the European Union has been the engine of preparing drafts, collecting signatures and mobilizing its members to ratify human rights resolutions against Iran in the Human Rights Commission and UN General Assembly. The EU allegations on violation of human rights in Iran have negatively affected the bilateral relations. They have also undermined other aspects of the relations to the extent that the EU has linked expansion of trade ties with Iran to the political challenges including the human rights. This research intends to study the challenge based on primary documents of the EU and answer the question about its approach on human rights issues in Iran. We have adopted a library and content analysis approach

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • EU
  • Iran
  • Human rights
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گلشن پژوه، محمود رضا (1391) "ارزیابی تاثیر متغییر حقوق بشر در روابط جمهوری اسلامی ایران و اتحادیه اروپا" مجموعه مقالات "ایران و اتحادیه اروپا: نجارب و چشم اندازها"تهران. ابرابر معاصر.
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مرادی منوچهر، (1390)، «گام‌های تاریخی در تشکیل و گسترش اتحادیه اروپا»، تاریخ مشاهده 22/12/1390، برگرفته از: http://vista.ir/article/203343
-یاری بهروز، (1382)، «اتحادیه اروپا و جمهوری اسلامی ایران: چالش حقوق بشر»، از کتاب اروپا(2): ویژه روابط ایران و اتحادیه اروپا، تهران: ابرار معاصر، صص161-121.

Council meetings (General Affairs and External Relations):
2070th Council meeting (GENERAL AFFAIRS), Brussels, 23 February 1998, C/98/44, 6060/98 (Presse 44):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/98/44&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2495th Council meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 18 March 2003, C/03/63, 6941/03 (Presse 63):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/03/63&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2518th Council meeting (External Relations), Luxembourg, 16 June 2003, C/03/166, 10369/03 (Presse 166):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/03/166&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2522th Council meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 21 July 2003, C/03/209, 11439/1/03 REV 1 (Presse 209):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/03/209&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2533th Council meeting (External Relations), Luxembourg, 13 October 2003, C/03/292, 13099/03 (Presse 292(:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/03/292&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2563th Council meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 23 February 2004, C/04/49, 6294/04 (Presse 49):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/04/49&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2687th Council meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 7 November 2005, C/05/274, 13622/05 (Presse 274):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/05/274&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2700th Council meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 12 December 2005, C/05/317, 14960/05 (Presse 317):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/05/317&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2719th Council Meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 20 March 2006, C/06/69, 7035/06 (Presse 69):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/06/69&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2839th Council meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 10 December 2007, C/07/288, 16326/07 (Presse 288):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/07/288&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
2951th Council meeting (External Relations), Luxemburg, 15 and 16 June 2009, 10939/09 (Presse 174):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/09/174&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
3005th Council meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 22 March 2010, 7828/1/10 REV 1 (Presse 73):
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/EN/foraff/113482.pdf
3076th Council meeting (External Relations), Brussels, 21 March 2011:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/120069.pdf

Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union:
Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the ninth anniversary of the Iranian fatwa against Salman Rushdie, Brussels, 16 February 1998, E/98/10, 5925/98 (Presse 36):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/98/10&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the issue of the author Salman Rushdie, Brussels, 28 September 1998, P/98/114, 11396/98 (Presse 315):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/98/114&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the disappearances and killings of dissidents in Iran, Brussels, 16 December 1998, Pesc/98/153, 14131/98 (Presse 450):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/98/153&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the events in Iran, Brussels, 15 July 1999, Pesc/99/68, 10128/99 (Presse 220):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/99/68&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the presidential elections in Iran, Brussels, 28 June 2005, P/05/66, 10666/05 (Presse 173):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/05/66&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on Iran Human Rights Dialogue, Brussels, 20 December 2005, P/05/150, 15927/05 (Presse 364):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/05/150&format=HTML&aged=1&language=en&guiLanguage=en

Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on worrying human rights developments in Iran in particular the case of Abdolfattah Soltani and the ten executions in Evin prison on April 19, Brussels, 5 May 2006, P/06/66, 9004/06 (Presse 127):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/06/66&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
European Council, Presidency Conclusions, 15 December 2006, D/06/3,16879/06:
http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/interinstitutional/conclusions_european_council_14_15_dec_2006.pdf

Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the imminent execution of three Ahwazi men in Iran, Brussels, 1 February 2007, PESC/07/7, 5856/1/07 REV 1 (Presse 13):
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/cfsp/92611.pdf

Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the deteriorating situation of the religious minority Baha’i in Iran, Brussels, 7 February 2008, P/08/18, 6204/08 (Presse 34):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/08/18&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en

Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the repeated violations of human rights in Iran, Brussels, 19 December 2008, P 158, 17518/08 (Presse 380):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/08/158&type=HTML

Declaration/ Statements by the EU High Representative(HR):
Declaration of the HR on behalf of the European Union on the trial against seven Baha'i leaders in Iran, Brussels, 12 January 2010, 5217/10 (Presse 2) P 2/10:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/cfsp/112212.pdf
Statement by HR Catherine Ashton on Iran, Strasbourg, 19 January 2010, SPEECH/10/4:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/10/4&type=HTML
Statement by High Representative Catherine Ashton on Iran”, Brussels, 29 January 2010, A 09/10:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/112714.pdf
Statement by HR Catherine Ashton, on imminent executions in Iran, Brussels, 5 February 2010, A 11/10:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/112772.pdf
Declaration by the HR Catherine Ashton on behalf of the European Union on Iran, Brussels, 12 June 2010, 10555/1/10 REV 1, PRESSE 176:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/cfsp/115144.pdf
Statement by HR Catherine Ashton on imminent executions in Iran, Brussels, 6 July 2010, A 126/10:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/115714.pdf
Declaration by the HR Catherine Ashton on behalf of the European Union on the sentencing of 7 Baha'I leaders, Brussels, 12 August 2010, 12821/2/10 REV 2 PRESSE 227:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/cfsp/116157.pdf
Declaration by the HR, Catherine Ashton, on behalf of the European Union on the wave of executions in Iran, Brussels, 27 January 2011, PESC/11/15:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/11/15&type=HTML
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/119613.pdf
Declaration by the HR Catherine Ashton on the sentencing of seven Baha’i leaders, Brussels, 1 April 2011, A 133/11:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/121248.pdf
Statement by the High Representative, Catherine Ashton, on the treatment of opposition groups in Iran, and the situations of Mir Hossein Mossavi and Mehdi Karroubi, Brussels, 4 March 2011, A 091/11
Statement by the High Representative Catherine Ashton on recent arrests of women journalists, artists and women's rights defenders in Iran, Brussels, 6 July 2011, A 265/11:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/123466.pdf

European Parliament Resolutions (EP Res):

European Parliament resolution, 7 May 2009, P6_TA(2009)0385:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P6-TA-2009-0385&language=EN
European Parliament resolution, 22 October 2009, P7_TA-PROV(2009)0060:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/200910/20091030ATT63498/20091030ATT63498EN.pdf
European Parliament resolution, “Situation in Iran”, 10 February 2010, P7_TA-PROV(2010)0016:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201002/20100212ATT68960/20100212ATT68960EN.pdf
European Parliament resolution, “EU approach towards Iran”, 10 March 2011, P7_TA-PROV(2011)0096:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=//EP//TEXT+TA+P7-TA-2011-0096+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN
European Parliament resolution, “Human rights in Iran - the case of Zahra Bahrami”, 8 September 2010, P7_TA-PROV(2010)0310:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201009/20100917ATT82759/20100917ATT82759EN.pdf
European Parliament resolution, “Human Rights in the World in 2009 and EU policy on the matter”, 16 December 2010, P7_TA(2010)0489:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P7-TA-2010-0489&language=EN

European Commission Documents:

European Commission, “EU-Iran: Commission sets out perspectives for closer relations”, Brussels, 7 February 2001, IP/01/176:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/01/176&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
European Commission, “EU-Iran: launch of negotiations on new agreements with Iran”, Brussels, 11 December 2002, IP/02/1862:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/02/1862&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
European Commission, “Commissioner Ferrero-Waldner on the stoning to death of Mr Jafar Kiani”, Brussels, 13 July 2007, IP/07/1095:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/1095&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=fr
European Commission, “Commissioner Ferrero-Waldner calls for continued efforts to achieve universal abolition of death penalty”, Brussels, 10 October 2008, IP/08/1480:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/1480&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en

European Council Documents:
European Council , European Union declaration concerning the imminent danger of the execution of Mr Amir Amrollahi in Iran, Brussels, 14 August 2008, P/08/101, 12449/1/08 REV 1 (Presse 235):
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PESC/08/101&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en

European Council, “EU reinforces restrictive measures due to serious human rights violations in Iran”, Luxembourg, 10 October 2011, 15307/11, PRESSE 356:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/125023.pdf

Statement by the spokesperson of EU High Representative:
Statement by the spokesperson of EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on the murder of Professor Ahmed Kerromi, an Algerian human rights defender, Brussels, 29 April 2011, A 168/11:
http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/algeria/documents/press_corner/20110503_en.pdf
Statement by the spokesperson of EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on the sentencing of Ms. Narges Mohammadi, an Iranian Human Rights Defender, Brussels, 8 October 2011, A 399/11:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/124989.pdf
Statement by the spokesperson of EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on possible execution of Sakineh Mohammadi-Ashtiani, Brussels, 2 November 2010, A 220/10:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/117531.pdf

Speeches:

Ashton Catherine, “The EU's approach to Iran”, Strasbourg (European Parliament), 9 March 2011, SPEECH/11/160:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/11/160&type=HTML

Ferrero Waldner Benita, “Iran”, Strasbourg, 25 October 2007, SPEECH/07/667:
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/667&format=HTML&ag&anguage=EN&guiLanguage=en

UN General Assembly(UNGA) Resolutions:

UN General Assembly, "Situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran", 13 December 1985, A/RES/40/141:
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/40/a40r141.htm/


EU- Other Countries Summits and other Documents:

JOINT STATEMENT By the European Union and the United States calling on the Iranian government to fulfil its human rights obligations, Brussels, 8 February 2010, 6235/10 (Presse 22):
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/112843.pdf