سیر تحول ایدئولوژیک اخوان‌المسلمین مصر و چالش‌های پیش‌رو

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

مقاله حاضر به بررسی مهم‌ترین تحولات ایدئولوژیک حزب اخوان‌المسلمین مصر در طول حیات سیاسی هفتادساله آن می‌پردازد. این تحول و انتقال ایدئولوژیک تحت تأثیر و در تعامل با محیط داخلی، منطقه‌ای و فضای بین‌المللی قرار داشته است. محقق برای درک چرایی و عمق تحولات ایدئولوژیک بالا، به بررسی نقاط عطف تاریخی و فکری که موجد این تحولات بوده‌اند، پرداخته و چنین دریافته است که اخوان‌المسلمین پس از بنیادگذاری حزب توسط البناء و ترسیم خطوط اصلی ایدئولوژیک دینی و سیاسی آن، دو تحول اساسی ایدئولوژیک را تاکنون تجربه کرده است: 1) ظهور سید قطب در دهه پنجاه میلادی و فراگیر شدن اندیشه رادیکالیسم اسلامی؛ 2) شکل‌گیری جریان اسلام‌گرای میانه‌رو و نوتفسیری دینی در دهه نود میلادی و تسلط عقیدتی آنان بر ساختار ایدئولوژیک حزب در دهه اول قرن بیست و یک که به اصلاحاتی در مرام‌نامه حزبی و پذیرش ایده تکثرگرایی سیاسی و ارزش‌های دموکراتیک به عنوان حقوق انسانی پذیرفته‌شده در اسلام منجر شد. همچنین محقق با توجه به ماهیت عقیدتی ـ سیاسی مرام‌نامه حزب، به شناسایی و بررسی چالش‌هایی پرداخته است که حزب اخوان به عنوان حزبی اسلامی در مسند قدرت با آن مواجه خواهد شد؛ چالش‌هایی که نوع پاسخ‌گویی به آنها هم می‌تواند در تحول اسلام سیاسی مؤثر باشد و هم نقطه عطف اساسی دیگری در تاریخ ایدئولوژیک حزب به شمار آید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood Ideological Evolution, and Challenges Ahead

نویسنده [English]

  • Masoumeh Rad Goudarzi

Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guilan

چکیده [English]

This paper reviews the most important ideological developments of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood party in the seventy years of its political life. This ideological evolution and transformation has been under the influence and interaction with the local, regional and international environment. To understand the reason and depth of these ideological developments, the researcher examined the historical and intellectual milestones of these developments and found that after founding the party and drawing its main lines of political and religious ideology by Al-Bana, the Brotherhood has experienced two ideological fundamental evolutions: 1. Emergence of Sayyid Qutb in the fifties and spread of radicalism in Islamic thoughts, and 2. Formation of a moderate Islamic and neo-interpretive religious movement in the nineties and its religious dominance on the ideological structure of the party in the first decade of twenty first century, which led to some reformations in the manifesto of the party, reception of political pluralism, and acceptance of democratic values as human rights which are recognized by Islam. Furthermore, due to the nature of the party's ideological-political manifesto, researcher identified and addressed the challenges that the Muslim Brotherhood will encounter in the region as a political party. The answers to these challenges are considered effective in the evolution of political Islam and can be counted as another major milestone in the ideological history of the party.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key Words: The Muslim Brotherhood
  • Egypt
  • Political Islam
  • the Islamic Sharia
  • Islamic Radicalism
  • Islamic Moderation
  • Hassan Al-Banna
  • Sayyid Qutb
  • Yusuf Alqrzavy
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