روند حق وتو در شورای امنیت (2009-1946) حفظ صلح و امنیت یا تأمین منافع قدرت‌ها

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی

2 مدرس دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی؛ واحد طالقان

چکیده

با آغاز کار سازمان ملل متحد در 1945و به تبع شورای امنیت، عملکرد سازمان همواره تحت تأثیر سیاست‌ها و موضع‌گیری‌های قدرت‌های صاحب امتیاز وتو قرار گرفته است. کشورهای صاحب امتیاز وتو در اتخاذ تصمیم‌گیری‌های خود در خصوص مسائل مطرح شده در شورای امنیت و توسل به وتو، بر اساس منافع ملی و همچنین روابط خود با کشورهای دیگر عمل کرده‌اند. سوال محوری ما این است که ایا برپایه بررسی تفصیلی موارد اعمال وتو در نیم قرن، آیا این حق در راستای وظیفه اصلی شورای امنیت یعنی حفظ صلح و امنیت بین‌المللی بکار گرفته شده ویا کاربرد آن در راستای حفظ منافع اعضاء دائم و یا همپیمانان آنان بوده است.؟ پس از تبین مسئله، مقاله تئوری انتقادی در روابط بین‌الملل را به عنوان چهارچوب کار نظریمعرفی می‌نماید.در قسمت بعدی مقاله سراغ داده‌های تفصیلی کاربرد وتو و تحلیل آنها می‌رود. برای تحلیل داد‌ها ازروش تحلیل محتوایی اسناد استفاده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Trend of Application of Veto Right at the Security Council (1946-2009): The Maintenance of International Peace and Security or Protection of the Permanent Members’ Interests?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Bozorgmehri 1
  • Nazanin Khorrami 2

1 Associate Professor Imam Khomeini International University

2 Instructor of Islamic Azad University, Taleghan Branch

چکیده [English]

With the establishment of the UNO in 1945 and consequently the Security Council, the functioning of the Organization has always been affected with the policies and stances of the permanent members enjoying the privilege of veto power. The states that are entitled with this privilege have acted on the basis of their national interests and their relations with other countries regarding the international issues and resorting to the veto power at the Security Council. Our principal question is on the basis of the detailed examination of cases of veto application in half a century, whether this right has been in accordance with the main function and duty of the SC which is maintaining international peace and security or its application has been used for protection of the interests of the permanent members and their allies? While explaining the problem, the article applies critical theory in International Relations for the theoretical framework of this research and later on goes to analyze the detailed data of the cases of application of veto. The conclusion proves that the veto right has been almost used for ensuring the interests of the great powers and their allies rather than keeping international peace and securities

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • UN
  • Security Council
  • Veto Power
  • International Peace and Security

کتب و مقالات (انگلیسی)
Bozorgmehri. Majid and Alireza Mohammad Khani.(2011)“Palestinian Issue and the Security Council of UN: Use of Veto Prevents the Establishment of International Peace”. “Geopolitics Quarterly. Volume 7. No 4. Winter 2011. PP.78-99
Bazz. Mikael. 2011. Critical Theory as an International Relations Theory “ 11September in International Relations Theory”. The Discipline of International Relations: Still an American Social Science? » http://asrudiancenter.wordpress.com/2008/06/25/critical-theory-as-an-international-relations-theory/
Hassan Khani. Mohammad(2010)“Double Standards in International Organization : A Comparative Study of the UN Response to Iraqi Invasion of Iran and Kuwait” Geopolitics Quarterly, Volume 6. No 4, Winter 2010. Pp 218-228
Horkheimer, Max. 198 2. “Critical Theory, Selected Essays”. The Continum Publishing Company. New York.. ISBN. 0-8264-0083-3
Global Policy Forum. “http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/membship/veto/vetosubj.htm”
Linklater, Andrew, 1999. “The Evolving Spheres of International Justice”, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1944 ), Vol. 75, No. 3.Jul., 1999
Mouffe, Chantal;1990 “Radical Democracy or Liberal Democracy?”, Socialist Review Vol. 20, No. 2. 1990
Patil.Anjali V.1992. “The UN Veto in World Affairs 1946-1990. A complete Record and Case Histories of the Security Council`s Veto.UNIFO.1992
ج: اسناد سازمان ملل
S/336. 21 August 1947. 190th meeting of the SC."Practices Relative to Recommendations to the General Assembly Regarding the Admission of New Members". Chapter VII 1946-1951.p. 245. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/46-51/46-51_07.pdf
S/1333. 13 September 1948. 443th Meeting of the Security Council ”Practices Relative to Recommendations to the General Assembly Regarding the Admission of New Members”. Chapter VII 1946-1951.p. 276. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/46-51/46-51_07.pdf
S/1332.13 September 1948. 443th Meeting of the Security Council “Practices Relative to Recommendations to the General Assembly Regarding the Admission of New Members”. Chapter VII 1946-1951.p. 276. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/46-51/46-51_07.pdf
S/1334. 13 September 1948. 443th Meeting of the Security Council “Practices Relative to Recommendations to the General Assembly Regarding the Admission of New Members”. Chapter VII 1946-1951.p. 276. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/46-51/46-51_07.pdf
S/1335.13 September 1948. 443th Meeting of the Security Council “Practices Relative to Recommendations to the General Assembly Regarding the Admission of New Members”. Chapter VII 1946-1951.p. 276. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/46-51/46-51_07.pdf
S/1336. 13 September 1948. 443th Meeting of the Security Council “Practices Relative to Recommendations to the General Assembly Regarding the Admission of New Members”. Chapter VII 1946-1951.p. 276. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/46-51/46-51_07.pdf
S/1337. 13 September 1948. 443th Meeting of the Security Council “Practices Relative to Recommendations to the General Assembly Regarding the Admission of New Members”. Chapter VII 1946-1951.p. 276. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/46-51/46-51_07.pdf
S/3502. 13 December 1955. 704th meeting of the Security Council.”Practices Relative to Recommendations to the General Assembly Regarding the Admission of New Members”. Chapter VII.1952-1955. P.88.http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/52-55/52-55_07.pdf
S/12110. 23 June 1976.1932th meeting of the Security Council. ,” Repertoire 1975-1980”. Chapter IV. Voting. SC. P.61.http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/75-80/75-80_04.pdf


S/4279. 25 March 1960. Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council. Supplement 1959-1963. Department of Political Security Council Affaires. UN. New York. 1965. P.XVI.http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/59-63/59-63__c.pdf

S/12310/Rev1. 31 October 1977. Repertoire .1975-1980.Chapter I. Provisional Rules Of Procedure of the Security Council.1975-1980.http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/75-80/75-80_01.pdf

S/12312/ Rev.1. 1977. 31 October 1977. Repertoire .1975-1980.Chapter I. Provisional Rules Of Procedure of the Security Council.1975-1980.http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/75-80/75-80_01.pdf

S/12311/Rev1.1977. 31 October 1977. Repertoire1975-1980.Chapter I. Provisional Rules Of Procedure of the Security Council.1975-1980. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/75-80/75-80_01.pdf

S/17363. 26 July 1985.2602th Meeting of the Security Council. Repertoire 1985-1988. Chapter III. Participation in the Proceeding of the Security Council.p.33.http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/85-88/85-88_03.pdf

S/17354/Rev.1. 26 July 1985. 2602th Meeting of the Security Council. Repertoire 1985-1988. Chapter III. Participation in the Proceeding of the Security Council.P.26.http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/85-88/85-88_03.pdf

S/1808 Rev.1. 23 May 1986. 2686th Meeting of the Security Council. Repertoire 1985-1988. Chapter III. Participation in the Proceeding of the Security Council.P.27.http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/85-88/85-88_03.pdf

S/18705. 20 February 1987. Repertoire 1985-1988. Chapter III. Participation in the Proceeding of the SecurityCouncil.P.33. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/85-88/85-88_03.pdf

S/19585. 8 March 1988.2797th Meeting of Security Council. Repertoire 1985-1988. Chapter V. Subsidiary Organs of the Security Council.P.80. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/85-88/85-88_05.pdf

S/13724. 3 january 1980. 2185th Meeting of the Security Council. Chapter III. Participation in the Proceeding of the Security Council P.31 http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/75-80/75-80_03.pdf

S/3714/Add.1and2..3 January 1980. 2185th Meeting of the Security Council. Chapter III. Participation in the Proceeding of the Security Council P.31. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/75-80/75-80_03.pdf

S/13729. 7 January 1980. 2190th Meeting of the Security Council. Chapter III. Participation in the Proceeding of the Security Council P.51 http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/75-80/75-80_03.pdf

S/17796/Rev.1. 6 February 1986. 2655th Meeting of the Security Council. Repertoire . 1985-1988. Part II. Chapter VIII. Maintenance of International Peace and Security.PP.325-27. http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/8588/Chapter%208/85-88_0823Letter%20dated%204%20February%201986%20from %20the%20Permanent%20Representative%20of%20the%20Syrian%20Arab%20Republic.pdf

S/2009/310. Security Council . 14 June 2009
S/PV.6143. Security Council. Sixty-fourth year . 6143rd meeting . Monday, 15 June 2009,