مبانی نظری، فرانظری و نقد نظریه واقع‌گرایی نئوکلاسیک

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

واقع‌گرایی نوکلاسیک در چارچوب پارادایم واقع‌گرایانه با انگیزه غلبه بر کاستی‌های نظریات واقع‌گرایانه دیگر در تبیین چرایی تفاوت در رفتار واحدها به‌رغم یکسان بودن شرایط محیطی ارائه شد. رئالیست‌های نوکلاسیک معتقدند که با مطالعه موردی و مشاهده عینی و تحلیل نظری، قادر خواهند بود تا تئوری‌های واقع‌گرایانه را براساس اصول پایه‌ای واقع‌گرایی به محک تجربه گذارند؛ اصولی که عملاً ممکن است در نظریه‌پردازیهای واقع‌گرایانه از آنها چشم‌پوشی شده باشد. سؤال اصلی این نظریه آن است که چرا تئوری‌های دیگر روابط بین‌الملل در تفسیر روابط علّی ناتوان هستند و چگونه می‌توان بر این نقص فائق آمد. بدین منظور واقع‌گرایی نوکلاسیک فرض می‌کند که نظریه کامل تبیین‌کننده روابط علّی در سیستم بین‌الملل باید سیستم را به عنوان نقطه عزیمت خود در نظر بگیرد اما در عین حال، به مختصات داخلی واحدها بپردازد و نتایج رفتاری واحدها را با عبور از ساختارهای داخلی شناسایی کند. براین اساس، پرسشمقالهآن است که:مبانی نظری و فرانظری نظریه واقع‌گرایی نوکلاسیک چه تأثیری بر فهم روابط‌ بین‌الملل گذارده است؟ با اتکا به مباحث مطرح شده توسط متفکران اصلی این جریان نظری می‌توان گفت که مبانی عقل‌گرایانه واقع‌گرایی نوکلاسیک با ترکیب نگاه نظام‌مند و نگرش مبتنی بر اصالت کنش‌گران و کارگزاران توانسته است موجب تکامل فهم واقع‌گرایانه از روابط بین‌الملل شود. هرچند غلبه نگاه مادی‌گرایانه و فقدان نگاه عمیق به ابعاد معنایی زیست بین‌المللی سببب گشته است که این نظریه از شرح کل‌گرایانه برخی از رفتارهای بین‌المللی بازماند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Theoretical and Meta-Theoretical Bases and Critique of Neoclassical Realism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Salimi 1
  • Menar Ebrahimi 2

1 Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba'i University

2 PhD student of Allameh Tabataba'i University

چکیده [English]

Neoclassical Realism Theory was established within the framework of Realistic paradigm in order to solve the problems of Realism theories which cannot explain why actors behave differently even under stable systemic circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to detect the meta-theoretical and theoretical bases of Neoclassical Realism as a theory which aims is to test Realism theories according to basic principles of Realism paradigm. The methods to fulfill that purpose is case study, objective observation and subjective analysis. Hence, Neoclassical Realism examines the principles that have been neglected in other theories of Realism paradigm. The main question of the Theory is, why the international relations theories and Realism theories as well, are unable to explain and interpret the causal relations in the system, and how to overcome this deficiency? Neoclassical Realism supposes that an inclusive theory for explaining the causal relations in the International system should study the International system as the point of departure, but also emphasizes on the units domestic characteristics, and identifies the resulting behaviours through the domestic structures channel. Therefore, the main question of the article is identifying the effects of theoretical and meta-theoretical bases of Neoclassical Realism on understanding International Relations. The results show that, the rationalistic bases of Neoclassical Realism has been able to complete the realistic understanding of International Relations, although it still suffers from the dominance of materialistic viewpoint and that has made it unable to describe some of the international behavioursin a holistic analysis.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foreign Policy
  • Institutional Structures
  • Mobilization of the Forces
  • Neoclassical realism
  • Perceptions
  • Resource Extraction
  • Ideology

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