نقش لابی اسرائیل در سیاست خارجی آمریکا ‏ ‏(با تمرکز بر مذاکرات هسته‌ای ایران و 1+5)‏

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین‌الملل دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات ‏

2 دانشیار گروه روابط بین الملل، واحد علوم و تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

3 استاد روابط بین الملل دانشکدة روابط بین‌الملل وزارت امور خارجه

4 دانشیار روابط بین الملل دانشکده روابط بین الملل وزارت امور خارجه

چکیده

این مقاله در چارچوب واقع‌گرائی نئوکلاسیک با تمرکز بر متغیر­های مداخله‌گر داخلی بویژه نقش گروه‌های ذینفع قومی طرفدار اسرائیل و با بهره‌گیری از روش همبستگی به نقش این گروه لابی در سیاست خارجی آمریکا پرداخته است. لابی­ اسرائیل در آمریکا متشکل از شبکه‌ای از سازمان‌های یهودی از جمله آیپک و جی‌استریت می‌باشد که به ترتیب موثرترین و فراگیرترین گروه‌های لابی در این کشور و بعنوان یک نیروی برجسته و موفق در تاثیرگذاری بر سیاست‌های آمریکا در ارتباط با اسرائیل، خاورمیانه و ایران محسوب می‌شود. مکانیزم عمل آیپک و جی‌استریت، بواسطه طبیعت سیستم سیاسی آمریکا و نقش بارزی که به کنگره در سیاست‌گذاری آمریکا می‌دهد، بویژه از طریق لابی با کنگره اجرایی می‌شود. تمرکز اصلی آیپک به‌طور گسترده‌تر هم‌راستا نمودن سیاست آمریکا با سیاست گروه‌های راست تندرو در اسرائیل می‌باشد، تا جائی‌که در رابطه با موضوع هسته‌ای ایران تلاش نموده است آن را تهدیدی برای صلح و امنیت بین‌المللی نشان دهد و از اعمال فشار بر ایران بواسطه تحریم به بهانه هسته‌ای و نیز به بن‌بست کشاندن مذاکرات ایران و 1+5 حمایت نماید. در حالی‌که جی‌استریت با شعار به اصطلاح حمایت از اسرائیل حمایت از صلح و با هدف اصلی ایجاد هویتی مستقل در برابر آیپک با جذب گروه‌های خارج از آیپک و یا مخالف سیاست‌های رادیکالی و دست‌راستی آن مانند گروه‌های لیبرال و معتدل، با اتخاذ رویکرد متفاوت تلاش نموده است که چهره دیگری از جامعه یهودیان آمریکایی نشان دهد و بعنوان وزنه تعادل در برابر آیپک عمل نماید. نمونه بارز این تغییر رویکرد، حمایت جی‌استریت از اوباما در مذاکرات هسته‌ای ایران و 1+5 بوده است

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of Israel's lobby in US foreign policy: Iran's nuclear talks and 1 + 5

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sanaz Tabeafshar 1
  • Kayhan Barzegar 2
  • Seyyed Mohammad Kazem Sajjadpour 3
  • seyed abbas araghchi 4

1 PhD student in International Relations, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch

2 Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch

3 Professor of International Relations, Faculty of International Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

4 Associate Professor of International Relations Faculty of International Relations Ministry of Foreign Affairs

چکیده [English]

In the context of neoclassical realism, this article focuses on the intrinsic interference variables, particularly the role of pro-Israel ethnic groups, and uses the solidarity approach to lobby for US foreign policy. The Israeli lobby in the United States consists of a network of Jewish organizations, including AIPAC and GI Street, which are the most effective and inclusive lobby groups in the country, respectively, as a prominent and successful force in influencing US policies regarding Israel, the Middle East and Iran. The mechanism of AIPAC and JS Street is enforced by the lobbying with Congress, given the nature of the American political system and the prominent role it gives Congress in American policymaking. The main focus of AIPAC is to broadly align US policy with that of hardline right-wing Israel in Israel, so far as it has sought to present it as a threat to international peace and security and to pressure Iran through a boycott of the nuclear pretext. And to support the stalemate in the Iran-5 + 1 negotiations. While JSR has tried to adopt a different approach with the so-called Israeli support for peace support and with the main aim of creating an independent identity against AIPAC by attracting groups outside AIPAC or opposing radical and right-wing policies such as liberal and moderate groups. To show another face of American Jewish society and act as a counterweight to AIPAC. A striking example of this change of approach was Obama's support for Iran in the Iran-5 + 1 nuclear talks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neoclassical realism
  • US foreign policy
  • AIPAC
  • GeoStrat
  • Iran's nuclear talks and 5+1

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