بررسی گسترش نفوذ ژئواکونومیکی چین در آسیای مرکزی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی

چکیده

این مقاله به بررسی گسترش نفوذ اقتصادی چین در منطقه آسیای میانه پرداخته است، و در این راستا نقش چین را در حوزه آسیای میانه مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار داده است. در واقع پس از فروپاشی شوروی، و استقلال پنج دولت قزاقستان، تاجیکستان، ازبکستان، قرقیزستان و ترکمنستان و متعاقب آن پدیدار شدن سیستم منطقه ای آسیای میانه، روسیه به عنوان وارث مزیت های  به جای مانده از شوروی نفوذی بی رقیب در این حوزه داشته است. به تدریج چین به عنوان بازیگری نوظهور وارد معادلات منطقه آسیای میانه شده است، و نقش مسلط روسیه را در زمینه های مختلف اقتصادی به طور جدی به چالش گرفته است، به طوریکه چین در زمینه تجاری در مجموع به بزرگترین شریک تجارت خارجی برون منطقه ای آسیای میانه نبدیل شده است، در زمینه سرمایه گذاری و توسعه زیرساخت های انتقال نفت و گاز و حمل و نقل جاده ای و راه آهن نیز چین به طور فزاینده ای نقش چشمگیری ایفاء نموده است و باتوجه به تلاش چین برای تبدیل کردن سین کیانگ به دروازه بزرگ اقتصادی ورود به اوراسیا که ذیل پوشش جاده جدید ابریشم دنبال می شود و نیز با توجه به ضرورت ها و الزامات توسعه اقتصادی داخلی، انتظار می رود که گسترش فزاینده اقتصادی چین در حوزه آسیای میانه تداوم خود را حفظ کند. یافته های این مقاله نشان می دهد که چین سیاستی عمل گرایانه مبتنی بر الزامات توسعه در جهت افزایش منابع اقتصادی بخش های داخلی خود در این حوزه در پیش گرفته است، و پیوندی وثیق بین سیاست خارجی و عوامل و اهداف اقتصادی چین در این منطقه شکل گرفته است و هم چنان که نفوذ سیاسی پکن در جهت نیل به ضرورت های توسعه اقتصاد داخلی بکار گرفته شده است افزایش منابع اقتصادی نیز به تقویت سیاسی چین انجامیده است و چین گسترش بیرونی را به شیوه ای پیش نبرده است که هزینه های سنگینی بر جامعه داخلی تحمیل کند بلکه بلعکس گسترش بیرونی به در خدمت منافع اقتصادی جامعه داخلی است

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Expansion of the geo-economical influence of China in Central Asia

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Taghizadeh Ansari

Faculty Member, Humanities and Cultural Studies Institute

چکیده [English]

This paper examines the expansion of China's economic influence in the Central Asian region, and analyzes China's role in the Central Asian region. Indeed, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the independence of the five governments of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan, and the subsequent emergence of the Central Asian regional system, Russia has inherited unrivaled influence in the area as a result of Soviet advantages. . China, as an emerging actor, has gradually entered into the Central Asian equations, seriously challenging Russia's dominant role in various economic fields, with China as the largest trading partner in Asia's foreign trade region as a whole. China has also played an increasingly important role in the investment and development of oil, gas, road and rail transport infrastructure, and given China's efforts to transform Xinjiang into a major gateway. Economic entry into Eurasia pursued under the new Silk Road cover and also according to the needs And the requirements of domestic economic development, it is expected, that China's growing economic expansion in Central Asia will continue to maintain. The findings of this article show that China has adopted a pragmatic policy based on development requirements to increase the economic resources of its domestic sectors in this area, and a strong link has been established between China's foreign policy and its economic agents and objectives in the region. And as Beijing's political influence has been used to meet the needs of domestic economic development, the increase in economic resources has also contributed to China's political reinforcement, and China has not externally expanded in a way that imposes heavy costs on the domestic community. Rather, it is the external expansion that serves the economic interests of the domestic community.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • China
  • Central Asia
  • Geoeconomics
  • Influence
  • Trade
  • Energy
Álvarez, C. B. M. (2015). China-Kazakhstan Energy Relations between 1997 and 2012. Journal of International Affairs, 69(1), 57.

Blackwill, R. D., & Harris, J. M. (2016). War by Other Means. Harvard University Press.

Cowen, D., & Smith, N. (2009). After geopolitics? From the geopolitical social to geoeconomics. Antipode, 41(1), 22-48.

Djankov, S. (2016). The Rationale Behind China’s Belt and Road Initiative. CHINA’S BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE, 6.

Dabrowski, M. (2016b) ‘Currency crises in post-Soviet economies — a never ending story?’ Russian Journal of Economics, Vol. 2, No.4: 302-326, available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ruje.2016.08.002

Fazilov, F., & Chen, X. (2013). China and Central Asia: A significant new energy nexus.

Farchy, J. (2016) ‘New Silk Road will transport laptops and frozen chicken’, Financial Times, Special Report, available at https://www.ft.com/content/e9d35df0-0bd8-11e6-9456-444ab5211a2f

The Guardian (2015) Uzbekistan separatist movement threatens ancient culture’, The Guardian, 5 February, available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/05/uzbek-separatist-movement-threatens-ancient-culture

IMF (2016) Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia, October, available at http://www. imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2016/mcd/eng/pdf/mreo1016.pdf

Hu, B. (2014). Oil and gas cooperation between China and Central Asia in an environment of political and resource competition. Petroleum Science, 11(4), 596-605.

Janusz-Pawletta, B. (2015) The Legal Status of the Caspian Sea, Current Challenges and Prospects for Future Development, Springer, available at http://www.kaspinfo.com/atom/491

Justino, P. and O.N. Shemyakina (2012) ‘Remittances and labor supply in post-conflict Tajikistan’, IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Vol.1, No. 1: 1-28, available at

https://izajold.springeropen.com/ track/pdf/10.1186/2193-9020-1-8?site=izajold.springeropen.com

Kuchins, A. C., Mankoff, J., Kourmanova, A., & Backes, O. (2015). Central Asia in a Reconnecting Eurasia. CSIS https://www. csis. org/analysis/central-asia-reconnecting-eurasia.

 

Leive, A. (2010) ‘Economic transition and health care reform: the experience of Europe and Central Asia’, IMF Working Paper, WP/10/75, available at

Leverett, F., & Bingbing, W. (2017). The New Silk Road and China’s Evolving Grand Strategy. The China Journal, 77(1), 110-132.

Li, S. (2016). The New Silk Road: Assessing Prospects for" Win-Win" Cooperation in Central Asia. Cornell International Affairs Review, 9(1).

Metaxas, T., & Kechagia, P. (2016). FDI in Central Asia: The Case of Uzbekistan. Applied Econometrics and International development, 16(1), 63-76.

Morck, R., & Yeung, B. (2016). China in Asia. China Economic Review, 40, 297-308.

Mogilevskii, R. (2012) ‘Trends and Patterns in Foreign Trade of Central Asian Countries’, University of Central Asia’s Institute of Public Policy and Administration, Working Paper No. 1, available a http://www.ucentralasia.org/Resources/Item/344

Herf, J. (1991). War by Other Means: Soviet Power, West German Resistance, and the Battle of the Euromissiles. New York.

Heilmann, S., Rudolf, M., Huotari, M., & Buckow, J. (2014). China’s shadow foreign policy: parallel structures challenge the established international order. China Monitor, 18.

Kapur, D., & Suri, M. (2002) Geoeconomics Versus Geopolitics. In The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of the Pacific Rim

Lo, B. (2015). China's Energy Policy Towards Central Asia: (April 2012). In THE EU–CHINA RELATIONSHIP: EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVES: A Manual for Policy Makers (pp. 232-240).

Sharshenova, A., & Crawford, G. (2017). Undermining Western democracy promotion in Central Asia: China’s countervailing influences, powers and impact. Central Asian Survey, 36(4), 453-472.

Pomfret, R. (2014). The economies of central Asia. Princeton University Press.

Sparke, M. (2000). Excavating the future in Cascadia: Geoeconomics and the imagined geographies of a cross-border region. BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly, (127), 5-44.

Son Scobell, A., Ratner, E., & Beckley, M. (2014). China's Strategy Toward South and Central Asia: An Empty Fortress. RAND PROJECT AIR FORCE SANTA MONICA CA.

Vor Obyov (2009). Central Asia—Next Target for Extremists. The Independent.

Wan g H Y.(2012) New Geo-economics—China and Central Asia. Beijing: World Affairs Press

Wan g J R.(2012) Distribution of Central Asia oil-gas cooperation projects.Internal Data of CNODC.

Zha ng X H.(2007) Analysis of Central Asia energy policy and countermeasures. Journal of Yangzhou University. 11(1): 18-13

Zha o C Q.(2012) Power game and position of Central Asian countries. Journal of Xinjiang Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences).. 35(2):71-74

Zou X(2013): Multi-level Capital Market Development. Training Materials of Independent Directors of Listed Companies