روابط اتحادیه اروپا با چین؛ از همکاری عمل‌گرایانه به سمت مشارکت راهبردی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مطالعات منطقه‌ای دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران تهران ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مطالعات اروپا، دانشگاه تهران

10.22034/irr.2022.343974.2189

چکیده

روابط چین و اتحادیه اروپا به‌صورت روزافزونی در حال گسترش و توسعه هستند. تحت شرایطی که رابطه چین و اروپا در ابتدا بیشتر از نوع معامله گرا و عمل‌گرا با نقش حداکثری عنصر تجارت بود، به‌تدریج با تغییر ماهیت به شکل راهبردی و فراگیر درآمده است. دراین‌ارتباط، این مقاله درصدد پاسخ به این سؤال بود که عوامل مؤثر بر حرکت اتحادیه اروپا به سمت یک مشارکت راهبردی با چین و تنگناها و موانع موجود بر سر راه این مشارکت چه بوده‌اند؟ فرضیه پژوهش بیان می‌کند که نگاه مشترک به نظم جهانی، چندجانبه گرایی و منافع مشترک اقتصادی به امضای مشارکت راهبردی اروپا و چین انجامیده‌اند و در مقابل اختلافات داخلی درون اتحادیه اروپا، ابتکار کمربند و راه چین، وضعیت به رسمیت شناختن چین به‌عنوان اقتصاد بازار محور و تأثیر روابط فرا آتلانتیک و بحران اوکراین از چالش‌های روابط هستند. در این پژوهش از روش کیفی و تحلیل آمار در داخل چارچوب نظری وابستگی متقابل پیچیده کوهن و نای استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان دادند که اتحادیه اروپا نوع خاصی از مشارکت راهبردی را با تأکید بر سیالیت موضوعی و جغرافیایی به‌منظور اهداف راهبردی همچون نقش‌آفرینی مؤثر در روابط بین‌الملل تعریف کرده است و با تنوع‌بخشی در شراکت راهبردی خود در آسیا و راهبرد هند و آرام خود به دنبال ایجاد تغییر در رفتار چین است. در مقابل، چالش‎هایی همچون بحران اوکراین بر فشار‎ها برای بازنگری در سیاست راهبردی هند و آرام اتحادیه و هماهنگ‌سازی آن با تعریف محدودکننده و ضد چین ایالات‌متحده آمریکا افزوده‎اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

EU relations with China; from pragmatic cooperation to strategic partnership

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Sabbaghian 1
  • Rajdeep Singh 2

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Regional Studies Faculty of Law and Political Science University of Tehran Tehran Iran

2 Graduate of European Studies, University of Tehran

چکیده [English]

China-EU relations are expanding fast. While the relationship between EU and China was initially more of a transactional and pragmatic type with the supremacy of trade, it has gradually shifted toward a strategic and comprehensive one. In this regard, this article sought to answer the following questions: what is the driving force behind the EU-China partnership and what are the obstacles to its further development? The research hypothesis states that a common view of the world order, multilateralism and common economic interests have led to the signing of the strategic partnership between the EU and China. On the other hand, internal divisions within the EU, the China’s Belt and Road Initiative, market economy status of China, and the impact of transatlantic relations and the Ukraine crisis are among the challenges the partnership faces. In this study, qualitative method and statistical analysis were carried out within the theoretical framework of Keohane and Nye’s complex interdependence. The results indicate that the European Union has defined a special type of strategic partnership with an emphasis on fluidity of business sectors and geography in order to achieve strategic goals such as enhancing its role in international relations and through its strategic partnership in Asia and Indo-Pacific strategy, it seeks to change China's behavior. On the other hand, challenges such as the Ukraine crisis have increased the pressure on the EU to review its Indo-Pacific strategy and harmonize it with the exclusive and anti-China US-led indo-Pacific strategy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • China
  • European Union
  • interdependence
  • Strategic partnership
  • Belt and Road Initiative
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