جایگاه ایندو- پاسیفیک در استراتژی جدید بریتانیا (2022-2015)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دفتر مطالعات سیاسی، مرکز پژوهش های مجلس شورای اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده علوم اداری و اقتصاد، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

10.22034/irr.2022.354032.2238

چکیده

ایندو- پاسیفیک در جهان کنونی تبدیل به یکی از مهمترین کانون‌‌های رقابت میان قدرت‌‌های بزرگ شده است و توجه بازیگران کلیدی منطقه‌‌ای و فرامنطقه‌‌ای را به خود جلب کرده است. یکی از مهمترین بازیگران در این زمینه بریتانیا است که پس از برگزیت فعالانه در حال بازنگری جایگاه خود در جهان است. به همین منظور سندی تحت عنوان «بررسی یکپارچه» منتشر شده است که مهمترین هدف آن بازسازی وجهه‌‌ بریتانیا به عنوان یک قدرت بزرگ در جهان و تثبیت جایگاه امنیتی و اقتصادی این کشور در ایندو- پاسفیک است. لذا در سند مذکور از لفظ «بریتانیای جهانی» استفاده شده است. به عبارت دیگر بریتانیا با هدف تثبیت هویت در حال تحول خود به عنوان یک قدرت بزرگ اروپایی و بازیگر بین‌‌المللی به سوی ایندو- پاسیفیک خیز برداشته است. از این‌‌رو جای سئوال است که منطقه ایندو-پاسیفیک چه جایگاهی در استراتژی جدید بریتانیا دارد؟ و دلایل خیز بریتانیا به سوی این منطقه چیست؟ با استمداد از نظریه برنارد کوهن تحت عنوان «ژئوپلیتیک نظام جهانی» استدلال شده است که با ظهور چین و روسیه به عنوان بازیگران تجدیدنظرطلب روند حاکم بر نظام بین‌‌الملل تغییر کرده و ایندو- پاسیفیک تبدیل به صحنه رقابت قدرت‌‌های بزرگ شده است. لذا با تغییر روند حاکم بر نظام بین‌‌الملل توجه لندن نیز به این منطقه جلب شده است. بریتانیا قصد دارد که تبدیل به یک کنش‌‌گر فعال در منطقه مذکور شود تا بدین وسیله نقش برجسته خود در نظام بین‌‌الملل در حال گذار را حفظ نماید. از مهمترین دلایل خیز بریتانیا به سوی ایندو- پاسیفیک می‌‌توان به پیامدهای اقتصادی برگزیت، تغییر رویکرد بریتانیا نسبت به چین، اولویت دادن به روابط نزدیک بریتانیا و آمریکا، اهداف امنیتی- نظامی و همچنین تقویت روابط دوجانبه با قدرت‌‌های منطقه‌‌ای مانند هند اشاره کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Position of Indo-Pacific Region in Britain’s New Strategy (2015-2021)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Amiri 1
  • mehrshad ghafarizade 2
  • Ehsan Fallahi 2

1 Assistance professor of the office of political studies, Islamic Parliament Research Center of The Islamic Republic of IRAN, Tehran, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Candidate of International Relations, Faculty of Administrative Sciences and Economics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Indo-Pacific Region has become a center of competition between the leading powers, and it has drawn the attention of key international and local players. One of these major powers is the UK actively revisiting its position in the world, particularly after Brexit. British government has published the “Global Britain” vision in the Integrated Review in order to reconsider its position as a major power in the world. The Integrated Review makes the UK government to deepen its engagement and consolidate its place in Indo-Pacific Region for a long-term. The Integrated Review document obliges the government to strengthen the UK’s persistent presence in Indo-Pacific Region. Hence, UK has tilted its strategy toward the region in order to consolidate its changing identity as a leading European power and as an international political player.  In this study, the main questions are “what is the position of Indo-Pacific Region in Britain’s new strategy? and what are the Britain's reasons for tilt toward the region?” Referring to the Bernard Cohen's theory "Geopolitics of the World System", it has been argued that the international order has been changed due to China and Russia revisionism, and Indo-Pacific Region is now considered as the arena of competition for great powers. This change has made the UK to shift its strategy toward this global hotspot and play an active and independent role at international environment. The main goal of Integrated Review is to deepen the UK’s engagement in the Region as a European nation for gaining economic and security advantages in the coming decade. The main reasons of Britain’s strategic orientation toward the region could be the economic consequences of Brexit, changing in China stance, prioritizing the US-Britain relations, achieving security-military goals, and boosting bilateral relations with Japan and India, as two regional powers. This study employed a descriptive-analytical approach in research conduction.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Global Britain
  • foreign policy
  • Indo-Pacific
  • geopolitics of the world system
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