ملاحظات سیاسی و امنیتی و حقوقی در مدیریت رودخانه‌های مرزی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکتری هیدروپلیتیک دانشگاه صنعتی دلفت هلند

چکیده

بیش از 45 درصد از خشکی‌های جهان در حوضه‌های آبریز مشترک بین‌المللی قرار دارند و زندگی بیش از 40 درصد از مردم دنیا به رودخانه‌های بین‌المللی وابسته است. کمبود و توزیع نامناسب منابع آب، افزایش بی‌رویۀ مصرف، نبود جایگزین مناسب برای منابع آب و تلاش‌ برای بهره‌برداری بیشتر از منابع آب مشترک، سبب ایجاد بحران‌های آب و تنش‌های سیاسی در برخی مناطق دنیا شده است. بین نقاط مختلف دنیا، بحران آب در منطقۀ خشک و نیمه‌خشک آسیای غربی، به‌مراتب خطرناک‌تر و وخیم‌تر از دیگر نقاط دنیاست. نبود آشنایی مناسب با قوانین بین‌المللی آب و همچنین تئوری‌ها و اصول مختلف بهره‌برداری از منابع آب مشترک مرزی، می‌تواند به‌ طور چشمگیری در سوء‌مدیریت و بهره‌برداری غیربهینه از این رودخانه‌ها مؤثر باشد. در این مقاله، مشکلات و چالش‌های مدیریت منابع آب‌های مشترک بین‌المللی از منظر سیاسی بررسی شده و ارتباط آب و مسائل امنیت ملی تشریح می‌شود. افزون بر این، اصول و دکترین‌های مختلف استفاده‌شده در قوانین و معاهدات بین‌المللی آب بررسی می‌شود و راهکارهای پیشنهادی برای افزایش کارآمدی قوانین بین‌المللی آب در مدیریت مسائل و چالش‌های واقعی مدیریت منابع آب مشترک مرزی ارائه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Political, Security and Legal Considerations in Trans-boundary River Management

نویسنده [English]

  • Hojjat Mianabadi

PhD student in hydraulic engineering Delft University of Technology, Netherlands

چکیده [English]

More than 45% of the earth’s land surface is covered by international and transboundary river basins (Wolf et al. 1999). In addition, almost 40% of the world’s population depends on these international shared water resources. Due to water scarcity, increasing rate of water consumption, and negative impacts of the climate change on available water resources, several water crisis and political challenges have occurred in some areas of the world. This conflict is much more serious in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East than other parts of the world. Clearly, lack familiarity with political and legal (water laws) aspects of transboundary rivers management can significantly affect their sustainable operation. In this paper, we examine the problems and challenges of the international water resources, including surface and ground water in political, legal, and security points of view. The relation between water and national security is also explained. Moreover, the principles and doctrines which are used in the international water treaties and laws are surveyed. Finally, we briefly propose some suggestions to improve resiliency of international water agreements to handle the future stresses

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trans-boundary Rivers
  • International water law

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