نظامیان و گذار به دموکراسی در کشورهای عرب: مطالعه موردی نقش نظامیان در تحولات سیاسی-اجتماعی مصر (20115-2011)

نویسندگان

1 استاد روابط بین الملل دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین الملل دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

مداخله نظامیان در سیاست درکشورهای جهان سوم و خاورمیانه، پدیده‌ای رایج در نیمه دوم قرن بیستم بوده است. با توجه به این که از سال 1952 به بعد نظامیان در عرصه‌های سیاسی و اقتصادی مصر دست برتر را داشته‌اند و در تحولات اخیر نیز از آغاز انقلاب تا کودتا علیه اخوان المسلمین و به قدرت رسیدن سیسی نقش مهمی داشته‌اند، مطالعه در باب روند قدرت‌یابی آنان در صحنه سیاسی مصر ضروری به نظر می رسد. مقاله حاضر پس از مرور و ارزیابی نظریه‌های مطرح درخصوص نظامیان و سیاست، به بررسی نقش نظامیان در فرایند گذار به دموکراسی در این کشور پرداخته است. به عقیده نگارنده نقش نگهبان و تسهیل کننده‌ی ارتش در فرایند مدرنیزاسیون الزاماً در فرایند دموکراتیزاسیون قابل تعریف نیست و در واقع آنچه در تحولات امروز مصر شاهد هستیم عبات است از فقدان انسجام رویکردی میان سران ارتش، تداوم وابستگی ارتش به امریکا، تلاش مجدد نظامیان برای بازتولید شبه اقتدارگرایی دوران مبارک، توسل به شیوه‌های قدیمی همچون نظامی‌کردن و امنیتی‌کردنِ دولت و فقدان اراده مبتنی بر واگذاری قدرت به غیرنظامیان. این عوامل بی‌تردید با ایفای نقش مثبت و موثر نظامیان در فرایند گذار به دموکراسی در مصر منافات دارند. این مقاله در چارچوب پارادایم تفسیرگرا و با بهره‌گیری از روش تبیینی- تحلیلی، به برررسی مباحث پیش‌گفته پرداخته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Militarists and Transition towards Democracy in the Arab Countries: Case Study of the Role of Militarists in Egyptian Socio-Political Developments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Jalal Dehghani Firouzabadi 1
  • Parisa Karimi 2

1 Professor of International Relations, Allameh Tabataba'i University

2 PhD student in International Relations at Allameh Tabatabai University

چکیده [English]

Militaristic intervention in politics in the third world countries and especially in Middle East has been a common phenomenon in the second half of the twentieth century. Due to the fact that since 1952 onwards the Egypt's military apparatus has enjoyed special privileges in political and economic arenas and played considerable role in recent movements from beginning of revolution till the coup against Muslim Brotherhood and gaining political power, it seems necessary to study the process of gaining power by the militarists in the Egyptian political scene. This article is an attempt toreview and evaluate established theories of militarists and politics and eventually to examine therole of the militarists in the process of transition to democracy in the country. The authors believe that military's role as the guardian and facilitator of modernization process is not necessarily applicable in democratization process. In fact what we are witnessing in today Egypt's events consists of uncoordinated approaches among military leaders, continued military dependence to America, reproduction of quasi- authoritarianism of Mubarak, resorting to the old methods of militarizing and securitizing the government and the lack of will to transfer the power to the civilians. These factors are certainly incompatible with a positive and effective role of the military in the process of transition to democracy in Egypt. This paper addresses the issue in the framework of interpretivist paradigm and with use of analytical-explanatory method.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Democracy. Militarists
  • Army
  • Egypt
  • Coup
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