عوامل موثر بر دگرگونی روابط روسیه با آمریکا در دوره «دمیتری مدودیف»

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در پی فروپاشی اتحاد شوروی، روابط فدراسیون روسیه با آمریکا مراحل گوناگونی را تجربه کرده است. دوره تصور پایان رویارویی دیرپای دوکشور پس ازپایان جنگ سرد، بسیار کوتاه‌تر از آن بود که ­به تحلیل خوش‌­بینانه غرب‌­گرایان در سیاست خارجی روسیه قدرت بخشد. روند تحولات در روابط آمریکا- روسیه به سرعت فاصله میان دیدگاه‌های رهبران مسکو و واشنگتن را در مورد مسایل و مشکلات صلح و امنیت بین‌المللی آشکار ساخت. نگرانی‌های روزافزون روسیه در جمهوری‌های پیرامونی، با آثار روز‌افزون جنگ جهانی با تروریسم شدت یافت. حضور فزاینده آمریکا در غرب آسیا، در افغانستان و عراق و سپس بحران سوریه، برنامه هسته‌ای ایران و مسأله استقرار سامانه دفاعی موشکی آمریکا در اروپا، شرایط را برای تعارض­‌های دو کشور آماده ساخت. در پایان نخستین دهه پس از جدایی جمهوری‌های اتحاد شوروی، «ولادیمیرپوتین» سیاست خارجی عمل‌گرایانه روسیه را تثبیت کرد تا «دمیتری مدودیف» آن را در مسیر «بازشروع» قرار دهد، که با دشواری‌های گوناگون و پیچیده‌ای روبه‌رو شده است. سؤال این نوشتار این است که کدام عوامل داخلی، منطقه‌ای و بین‌المللی، سبب دگرگونی روابط روسیه با آمریکا در دوره ریاست جمهوری دمیتری مدودیف شدند؟ این نوشتار با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استفاده از دیدگاه نویسندگان روسی انجام شده تا سازوکار این دگرگونی از دیدگاه روسیه روشن شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Factors affecting the transformation of Russia's relations with America at the time, "Dmitry Medvedev"

نویسنده [English]

  • Elaheh Koolae

Professor, University of Tehran

چکیده [English]

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the US and Russian Federation relations have been experienced obvious ups and downs. The period of believing the end of long-lasting competition between the two countries after the cold war was too short enough to approve the optimistic analysis of Westerners politicians. The next developments showed quickly the distance between Moscow and Washington’s views on issues of international peace and security. On the one hand, Russia’s growing concerns about the former republics on its own periphery were intensified by the increasing effects of the Global War on Terrorism. On the other hand, the US growing presence in West Asia, Afghanistan and Iraq, and then Syrian crisis, Iranian nuclear program and deployment of the US Missile Defense System in Europe, prepared the ground for creating more confrontation between them. A decade after the independence of the former Soviet Republics, Russian president, Vladimir Putin, crafted and fixed a pragmatic foreign policy. Dmitry Medvedev, the next President of Russia, put this policy on the path of “reset”, which is now facing with complicated problems. However, the question raised by this article is: “What internal, regional or international factors changed the Russian and US relations during Medvedev’s presidency? This paper is based on a descriptive-analytic method, and to examine the mechanisms of this change from the Russian point of view, it studies the positions of its experts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Russia
  • the US
  • Europe
  • Medvedev
  • Obama
  • Putin
  • Bush
  • Near Abroad
  • Middle East
  • Missile Defense System
  • New START Treaty

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