تحولات قدرت جهانی، , هند و رویکرد آن به غرب آسیا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه علوم سیاسی و روابط بین الملل، واحد خرم آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خرم آباد، ایران.

چکیده

همزمان با تغییر روابط قدرت در سطح جهان، می توان ظهور یک معماری منطقه ای جدید در غرب آسیا را نیز مشاهده کرد. عزم هند برای تبدیل شدن به یک قدرت پیشرو در سطح جهانی سبب شده تا با اتخاذ دیپلماسی فعال و استراتژی مبتنی بر تعامل کل نگر و همه جانبه و تعامل با قدرتهایی همچون ایالات متحده در سطح جهانی و خاور میانه به ویژه غرب آسیا در سطح منطقه ای، از یکسو به تقویت روابط اقتصادی و از سوی دیگر به نهادینه کردن همکاری های امنیتی به ویژه امنیت انرژی در طولانی مدت با کشورهای عربی خلیج فارس ، ایران و اسرائیل بر اساس "سیاست نگرش به غرب" پس از انتخاب نارندرا مودی برای دور دوم نخست وزیری نماید. چارچوب نظری اتخاذ شده در تبیین رابطه و رویکرد هند نسبت به غرب آسیا بر اساس نظریه نئو رئالیسم که معتقد بر اهمیت ساختار نظام بین الملل و نقش آن به عنوان پیش تعیین کننده رفتار کشورهاست قرار دارد. این مقاله با بهره مندی از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و استفاده از منابع اولیه و ثانویه این پرسش را مطرح می کند که "پیامدهای پیروزی مودی در تعامل هند با غرب آسیا به ویژه ایران چگونه خواهد بود"؟ در پاسخ به این پرسش این مقاله بر این فرض است که رویکرد هند در قبال غرب آسیا مشخصاً تحت تأثیر سیاستهای خاورمیانه ای ایالات متحده قرار دارد و همین امرتعامل هند با ایران را با دشواری مواجه خواهد نمود. یافته های مقاله نیز مبین تأیید فرضیه مطروحه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Global Power Transition & India and its Approach towards West Asia

نویسنده [English]

  • آناهیتا معتضد راد

چکیده [English]

Strategically, West Asia is a momentous region which has always been affected by changes at three national, regional and international levels. As global power relations are changing, there is also the emergence of a new regional architecture in West Asia that can bring widespread considerations for trans-regional countries, including India. India's determination to become a pioneer global power has led to the adoption of active diplomacy and a holistic strategy and comprehensive engagement with powers such as the United States and West Asia. Thus, the article is to study parameters and considerations that India has in its foreign relations with the West Asian countries focusing on the Arab Gulf states, Israel and Iran based on the "LookWest Policy" after Narendra Modi's election for the second term. Through adopting descriptive-analytic approach & utilizing primary & secondary sources the paper is to answer the question that, " What would be the consequences and implications of Modi's victory for India's foreign policy towards West Asia, especially for Iran"? Answering the question, the paper assumes that India's approach to West Asia is clearly influenced by US Middle East policies, and this will make it difficult for India to engage effectively with Iran.
Theoretically, the paper has adopted neo-realism theory in order to reach a profound perception of India's relation with West Asia according to this pre- assumption which believes in the importance of the international system structure and its role as a pre-determinant factor of the behavior of countries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Look West Policy
  • Holistic Strategy
  • Autonomy Strategy
  • Indian Foreign Policy
  • West Asia
جکسون، رابرت و سورنسون، گئورگ. (1385). درآمدی بر روابط بین‌الملل، ترجمه مهدی ذاکریان، احمد تقی‌زاده و حسن سعید کلامی، تهران: نشر میزان.
گریفیتس، مارتینا. (1391). نظریه روابط بین‌الملل برای سده بیست و یکم، ترجمه علیرضا طیب، تهران: نشر نی.
محمد خانی، علیرضا. (1388). «تبیین رویکرد نو واقع گرایی در روابط بین‌الملل»، فصلنامه مطالعات سیاسی، دوره 1، شماره 3، صص 100-83.
میرشایمر، جان (1390). تراژدی سیاست قدرتهای بزرگ، ترجمه غلامعلی چگنی‌زاده، چاپ سوم، تهران: انتشارات وزارت امورخارجه.
Abraham,  “India and its Diaspora in the Arab Gulf Countries”; “India highest recipient of remittances at $79 bn in 2018: World Bank,” Economic Times, April 9, 2019, https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/nri/forex-and-remittance/india-highest-recipient-of-remittances-at-79-bn-in-2018-world-bank/articleshow/68788815.cms?from=mdr.
Abraham, Rhea, “India and its Diaspora in the Arab Gulf Countries: Tapping into Effective ‘Soft Power’ and Related Public Diplomacy,” Diaspora Studies 5, 2 (2012): 124-146.
Ashwarya,Sujata, India-Iran Relations: Progress, Problems and Prospects (London: Routledge, 2017); Meena Singh Roy, “Iran: India’s Gateway to Central Asia,” Strategic Analysis 36, 6 (2012): 957-975.
Amirthan,Shawn, “What are India, Iran, and Afghanistan’s Benefits from the Chabahar Port Agreement?” Strategic Analysis 41, 1 (2017): 87-93.
 Burton, Guy, Rising Powers and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1947 (Lanham: Lexington, 2018): 126; Rajendra Abhyankar, “The Evolution and Future of India-Israel Relations,” Daniel Abraham Center for International and Regional Studies Research Paper 6 (March 2012), https://www.tau.ac.il/humanities/abraham/india-israel.pdf.
Choudhury, Pramit Pal, “When India began to take the East seriously,” Hindustan Times, June 3, 2018, https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/when-india-began-to-take-the-east-seriously/story-q5gxZj7n0JVUM0nMHRO8DO.html
Pramit Pal Choudhury, “Think West to Go West: Origins and Implications of India’s West Asia Policy under Modi (Part 1),” Middle East Institute, September 26, 2017,   https://www.mei.edu/publications/think-west-go-west-origins-and-implications-indias-west-asia-policy-under-modi-part-i.
Chatzky, Andrew and James McBride, “China’s Massive Belt and Road Initiative,” Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder, May 21, 2019, https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinas-massive-belt-and-road-initiative.
Chand,Nandika, “Indian Crew From Detained British Tanker Stena Impero Given Consular Access By Iran,” International Business Times, July 26, 2019, https://www.ibtimes.com/indian-crew-detained-british-tanker-stena-impero-given-consular-access-iran-2808901.
Erlanger, Steven , “Iran Links British Seizure of Oil Tanker to Ailing Nuclear Deal,” New York Times, July 28, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/28/world/europe/iran-tanker-britain-nuclear.html.
Hall,Ian, “Is a ‘Modi doctrine’ emerging in Indian foreign policy?” Australian Journal of International Affairs 69, 3 (2015): 247-252.
IrudayaRajan,S. ,  V.J. Varghese, and M.S. Jayakumar, Dreaming Mobility and Buying Vulnerability: Overseas Recruitment Practices in India (London: Routledge, 2011); Government of India,  Ministry of External Affairs, “Population of Overseas Indians” (Compiled in December 2018), http://mea.gov.in/images/attach/NRIs-and-PIOs_1.pdf.
“ISIL expands its reach in Afghanistan, threatening the West,” Al Jazeera, June 10, 2019, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/06/isil-expands-reach-afghanistan-threatening-west-190610062113025.html.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of India, “IISS Fullerton Lecture by Dr. S. Jaishankar, Foreign Secretary in Singapore,” July 20, 2015, accessed January 8, 2016, http://mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/25493/IISS_Fullerton_Lect….
Khetran,Mir Sherbaz , “Gwadar and Chabahar: Competition or Cooperation,” Strategic Studies (Islamabad) 38, 2 (2018): 43-55, http://www.issi.org.pk/gwadar-and-chabahar-competition-or-cooperation/.
Kumaraswamy,P.R. , “India’s New Israel Policy,” SWP Comment 11 (Berlin: German Institute for International and Security Affairs, 2019), https://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/comments/2019C11_kumaraswamy.pdf.
P.R. Kumaraswamy, Reading the Silence: India and the Arab Spring (Jerusalem: Hebrew University,2012), https://en.davis.huji.ac.il/sites/default/files/davisinsten/files/Reading_the_silence.pdf.
20. Keinon,Herb , “Israeli-Indian Statement Ignores Two-State Solution,” Jerusalem Post, July 6, 2017,  https://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Modis-Visit/Israeli-Indian-statement-ignores-two-state-solution-498891.
21.  Sanjeev Miglani, “Indian warships to stay longer in Persian Gulf, but won’t join U.S. coalition,” Reuters, July 18, 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-iran-india/indian-warships-to-stay-longer-in-persian-gulf-but-wont-join-us-coalition-idUSKCN1UD22S.
22. Mearsheimer, John (2011). Realists as Idealists, Security Studies, 20(3), 424-430.
Mohan, C. Rajan ,“India and the Balance of Power,” Foreign Affairs (July/August 2006)
Mohan,C. Raja, “From Looking East to Acting East,” January 29, 2015, Government of India, Ministry of External Affairs,  https://www.mea.gov.in/in-focus article.htm?24714/From+Looking+East+to+Acting+East, Pramit Pal Choudhury, “When India began to take the East seriously,” Hindustan Times, June 3, 2018, https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/when-india-began-to-take-the-east-seriously/story-q5gxZj7n0JVUM0nMHRO8DO.html
Pant, Harsh, “India and the Middle East: Before and After the Arab Spring,” in Robert Mason (ed.), The International Politics of the Arab Spring (London: Springer, 2014): 155-175.
Rahman, Omar, “What’s behind the relationship between Israel and Arab Gulf states?” Brookings Institution, January 28, 2019, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2019/01/28/whats-behind-the-relationship-between-israel-and-arab-gulf-states/.
Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Prime Minister’s Office, “PM to Heads of Indian Missions,” February 5, 2015, accessed January 8, 2016, http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=115241.
Siyech, “India-Qatar Relations”; Naser Al-Tamimi, “The Gulf Crisis: Why is India still neutral?” Arab News, July 29, 2017, http://www.arabnews.com/node/1136101/columns.
“Trade war: India and USA must address issues as early as possible, says Indian envoy,” The Hindu, July 17, 2019, https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/trade-war-india-and-usa-must-address-issues-as-early-as-possible-says-indian-envoy/article28506643.ece.
Ward,Richard, West Asia In Indian Foreign Policy. Phd Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1970. India’s Muslim population was around 34 million or 10% at independence in 1947. By the time of the 2011 census it had risen to 177 million or 14% of the population. Aariz Mohammed, “Demographic Dividend and Indian Muslims – i,” Milli Gazette, June 4, 2013, http://www.milligazette.com/news/6953-demographic-dividend-and-indian-muslims-i; “Religion Census 2011,”  http://www.census2011.co.in/religion.php.
Tellis, Ashley J. , “india as a Leading Power,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, April 4, 2016, accessed January 8, 2016, http://carnegieendowment.org/2016/04/04/india-as-leading-power-pub-63185.