«چرخش عاطفی» در روابط بین الملل: مروری بر رابطه عقلانیت و عواطف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار روابط یبن‌الملل دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

یکی از مباحث دیرپا در روابط بین‌الملل کیفیت رابطه عقلانیت و عواطف بوده است. به طور سنتی، نظریه‌پردازان روابط بین‌الملل عمدتاً به دنبال شناخت آداب و رفتار عقلانی و تجویز راه‌های گریز از تصمیمات احساسی و غیرعقلانی بوده‌اند. این متفکرین اغلب گمان می‌کردند که عواطف و عقلانیت مبادی متفاوتی دارند و می‌توان از پیامدهای آسیب‌زای عواطف در سیاست جهانی گریخت. مطالعات جدید در روابط بین‌الملل و سایر حوزه‌های مرتبط این مفروض را زیر سوال برده و عواطف بیش از پیش مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. هدف مقاله حاضر، بررسی تحولات جدید و پیامدهای آن در ادبیات روابط بین‌الملل است. بنابراین، پرسش اصلی این است که طی دو دهه اخیر، چه تحولی در رابطه میان عقلانیت و عواطف در روابط بین‌الملل به وجود آمده است. در مقام پاسخ، می‌توان این فرضیه را پیش نهاد که رابطه میان عقلانیت و عواطف در روابط بین‌الملل از تباین به یگانگی مبدل گشته و از آن به عنوان چرخش عاطفی یاد می‌کنند. این فرضیه با روش فراتحلیل مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. تحلیل دیدگاه نظریه‌پردازان فعال در این حوزه نشان می‌دهد که عواطف بیش از پیش مورد توجه واقع شده و این روند به نحو روزافزونی در حال گسترش است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

'emotional turn' in International Relations: a review on emotion-rationality link

نویسنده [English]

  • seyed ahmad fatemi nejad

department of political science Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

چکیده [English]

The quality of the linkage between rationality and emotions has been one of lasting issues in International Relations. Many International Relations’ thinkers have been trying to understand rational conducts and behaviors and prescribe some resolutions for emotional irrational decisions. These thinkers have mostly believed that rationality and emotions root in different sources and it is possible to protect ourselves and others against damaging results of emotions in world politics. New researches in International Relations and other related disciplines have questioned the premises and locked the thinkers’ eyes on emotions increasingly. The aim of the article is to study the new development and its results for International relations literatures. So, the main question here is what change has happened in relation between emotion and rationality in International Relations. To answer the question, it is worth saying that emotion-rationality link in International Relations has shifted from contradiction to unification which is called ‘emotional turn’. The hypothesis is studied by meta-analysis method. Findings show that emotions have been paid attention increasingly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • international relations
  • theorizing
  • emotional turn
  • rationality
هوتون، دیوید پاتریک. (1393). روان‌شناسی سیاسی: وضعیت‌ها، اشخاص و قضایا. ترجمه سعید عبدالملکی. تهران: نشر دانژه.
کاتم، مارتا و دیگران. (1386). مقدمه­ای بر روانشناسی سیاسی. ترجمه جواد علاقبندراد و دیگران. تهران: مرکز نشر دانشگاهی.
میتزن، جنیفر. (1388). «امنیت هستی­شناختی». در: مایکل شیهان، امنیت بین­الملل. ترجمه سیدجلال دهقانی فیروزآبادی، تهران: پژوهشکده مطالعات راهبردی. صص 290-261.
لیبو، ریچارد ند. (1392). نظریه فرهنگی روابط بین­الملل. ترجمه جلال دهقانی فیروزآبادی و دیگران. تهران: موسسه پژوهشی فرهنگ، هنر و ارتباطات.
Bleiker, R & E. Hutchison. (2008). “Fear no more: Emotions and world politics”, Review of International Studies, Vol. 34, pp. 115–135.
Bleiker, R & E. Hutchison. (2014). “Theorizing emotions in world politics”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 491-514.
Carlson, Lisa J. et al. (2014). “The use of fear and anger to alter crisis initiation”, Conflict Management and Peace Science, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 168–192.
Crawford, Neta C. (2000). The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotion and Emotional Relationships. International Security, 24(4), 116-156.
Crawford, Neta C. (2014). “Institutionalizing passion in world politics: fear and empathy”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 535-557.
Dacey, Raymond et al. (2004). “Traditional Decision Analysis and the Poliheuristic Theory of Foreign Policy Decision Making”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 38–55.
Danchev, Alex. (2006). “Like a Dog!: Humiliation and Shame in the War on Terror”, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 259–83.
Edkins, Jenny. (2003). Trauma Time and the Memory of Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fattah K and Fierke KM. (2009). A clash of emotions: The politics of humiliation and political violence in the Middle East. European Journal of International Relations 15(1): 67–93.
Fattah, Khaled and K. M. Fierke. (2009). ‘A Clash of Emotions: The Politics of Humiliation and Political Violence in the Middle East’. European Journal of International Relations. Vol. 15(1): 67–93.
Fierke, K.M. (2004). ‘Whereof we can Speak, Thereof we must not be Silent: Trauma, Political Solipsism and War’, Review of International Studies 30: 471–91
Fierke, K.M. (2014). “Emotion and intentionality”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 563-567.
Flanik, William. (2011). “Bringing FPA Back Home: Cognition, Constructivism, and Conceptual Metaphor”, Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 423–446.
Fontan, Victoria. (2006). “Polarization between Occupier and Occupied in Post- Saddam Iraq: Colonial Humiliation and the Formation of Political Violence”, Terrorism and Political Violence. Vol. 18, pp. 217–38.
Foster, Dennis M.  & Jonathan W. Keller. (2014). “Leaders' Cognitive Complexity, Distrust, and the Diversionary Use of Force”, Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol.10, No. 3, pp. 205–223.
Gallagher, Julia. (2016). “Creating a state: A Kleinian reading of recognition in Zimbabwe’s regional relationships”. European Journal of International Relations. Vol. 22(2) 384–407.
Hall, TH. (2011). We will not swallow this bitter fruit: Theorizing a diplomacy of anger. Security Studies 20(4): 521–555.
Hutchison, Emma. (2010). “Trauma and the Politics of Emotions: Constituting Identity, Security and Community after the Bali Bombing”. International Relations. Vol. 24. No. 1; pp.65-86.
Hymans JEC. (2006). The Psychology of Nuclear Proliferation: Identity, Emotions and Foreign Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jeffery, Renee. (2014). “The promise and problems of the neuroscientific approach to emotions”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 584-589.
Lebow, Richard Ned. (2006). “Fear, interest and honour: outlines of a theory of International Relations”. International Affairs 82, 3. 431–448.
Lindner, Evelin. (2006). Making Enemies: Humiliation and International Conflict. London: Praeger Security International.
Linklater,   Andrew. (2014). “Anger and world politics: how collective emotions shift over time”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 574-578.
Löwenheim O and Heimann G. (2008). Revenge in international politics. Security Studies 17(4): 685–724.
Mattern, Janice Bially. (2014). “On being convinced: an emotional epistemology of international relations”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 589-594.
McDermott R. (2004). The feeling of rationality: The meaning of neuroscientific advances for political science. Perspectives on Politics 2(4): 691–706.
McDermott, 2014. (2014). “The body doesn’t lie: a somatic approach to the study of emotions in world politics”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 557-562.
Mercer, J. (2006). “Human nature and the first image: emotion in international politics”. Journal of International Relations and Development; Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 288–303
Mercer, J. (2010). Emotional beliefs. International Organization 64(1): 1–31.
Mercer, J. (2013). Emotion and strategy in the Korean War. International Organization 67(2): 221 252.
Mercer, J. (2014). “Feeling like a state: social emotion and identity”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 515-535.
Michel, Torsten. (2012). ‘Time to get emotional: Phronetic reflections on the concept of trust in International Relations’. European Journal of International Relations; 19(4) 869–890
Mintz, Alex. (2004). “How Do Leaders Make Decisions?: A Poliheuristic Perspective”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 3 – 13.
Mintz, Alex. (2005). “Applied Decision Analysis: Utilizing Poliheuristic Theory to Explain and Predict Foreign Policy and National Security Decisions”, International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 94–98.
Oppermann, Kai. (2014). “Delineating the Scope Conditions of the Poliheuristic Theory of Foreign Policy Decision Making: The Noncompensatory Principle and the Domestic Salience of Foreign Policy”, Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 23–41.
Reus-Smit, Christian. (2014). “Emotions and the social”, International Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 568-574.
Roach, Steven C. (2016). “Affective values in international relations: Theorizing emotional actions and the value of resilience”. Politics. Published online before print.
Ross, Andrew A. G. (2006). Coming in from the Cold: Constructivism and Emotions; European Journal of International Relations. Vol. 12(2): 197–222.
Ross, Andrew A.G. (2010). “Why They Don’t Hate Us: Emotion, Agency and the Politics of ‘Anti-Americanism’”. Millennium - Journal of International Studies. Vol. 39. No. 1; pp.109-125.
Sasley BE. (2011). Theorizing states’ emotions. International Studies Review 13(3): 452–476.
Sasley, Brent E. (2010). “Affective attachments and foreign policy: Israel and the 1993 Oslo Accords’. European Journal of International Relations; 16(4) 687–709
Saurette, Paul. (2005). The Kantian Imperative: Humiliation, Common Sense, Politics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Saurette, Paul. (2006). “Are you Dissin Me? Humiliation and Post 9/11 Global Politics”, Review of International Studies. Vol. 32, No.3, pp. 495–522.
Solomon T. (2014). The affective underpinnings of soft power. European Journal of International Relations 20 (3). pp. 720-741.
Solomon, T. and Brent J. Steele. (2016). “Micro-moves in International Relations theory”. European Journal of International Relation. Published online before print.
Wheeler, Nicholas J. (2008). ‘To Put Oneself into the other Fellow's Place': John Herz, the Security Dilemma and the Nuclear Age’. International Relations; Vol. 22(4): 493–509.
Wheeler, Nicholas J. (2009). ‘Beyond Waltz's Nuclear World: More Trust May be Better’; International Relations; Vol. 23(3): 428–445.
Wong, Seanon S. (2016). “Emotions and the communication of intentions in face-to-face diplomacy”. European Journal of International Relations; Vol. 22(1) 144–167.
Ye, Min. (2007). “Poliheuristic Theory, Bargaining, and Crisis Decision Making”, Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 317–344.