تروما؛ منازعه و بازمنازعه در افغانستان

نویسندگان

1 مدیر گروه مطالعات جنوب و شرق آسیا

2 استاد و عضو هیات علمی دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

3 گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/irr.2022.144268

چکیده

جنگ و منازعه پایدار در افغانستان و چرایی بی‌پایانی آن در طول چهل سال سؤالات بسیاری را به اذهان متبادر ساخته و پاسخ‌های متفاوت وابسته به حوزه مطالعاتی پژوهشگر به این سؤال داده شده است. وجود دولت ناکارآمد و ناکام، ضعف نیروهای امنیتی، توانمندی گروه‌های افراطی، وجود پناهگاه‌های امن، تجارت غیرقانونی و متغیرهای از این دست از زمره پرطرفدارترین آن هستند. در این میان ضعف نهاد دولت مبنای اکثر پژوهش‌ها بوده و بررسی آثار جنگ بر مردم افغانستان مغفول واقع شده است. تحقیقات نشان می‌دهند که، مواجهه مستمر با خشونت عریان موجب افزایش سطح خشونت در فرد خواهد شد. حال اگر نظاره و کاربرد خشونت در یک جامعه «عادی» و تبدیل هنجارهای هویتی گردد دستیابی به صلح و ثبات دشوار و بعید خواهد بود. از این‌رو، مدعای این نوشتار برآن است که، راهکار حل منازعه پایدار در افغانستان تقویت دولت، استقرار نظم و همچنین تمرکز روی سطح خشونت درونی شده در لایه‌های مختلف اجتماعی در این کشور است. آنچه از آن به‌عنوان «تروما» و «دولت‌های تروما» یاد می‌شود، ناظر به همین نگاه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Trauma; Conflict and Reconfiguration in Afghanistan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somaye Morovati 1
  • Hamid Ahmadi 2
  • Mehdi Zakerian 3

1 Director of South and East Asian group studies

2 Professor and faculty member of the Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran

3 Department of International Relations, College of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University , Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The enduring war and conflict in Afghanistan and its endless years have raised many questions over the past 40 years and various answers have been given to the researcher. The most inefficient are the existence of inefficient government, the weakness of the security forces, the ability of extremist groups, the existence of safe havens, illegal trade, and such. In the meantime, the weakness of the government has been the basis of most research and the study of the effects of the war on the Afghan people has been neglected. Research shows that continuous exposure to naked violence will increase the level of violence in the individual. Achieving peace and stability will be difficult and unlikely, however, if one observes and uses violence in a 'normal' society and transforms identity norms. Thus, the paper argues that the solution to the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan is to strengthen the government, establish order, and also focus on the level of internalized violence in the various social layers in the country. This is what is referred to as "trauma" and "trauma states"

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Trauma
  • Conflict
  • Afghanistan
  • Normalizing Violence
  • Extremist Groups"
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