اثبات جرم پولشویی و معیار تشخیص آن در اسناد بین المللی وداخلی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی، واحد بندرعباس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بندرعباس، ایران

2 دانشیاردانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه حقوق، واحد بندرعباس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بندرعباس، ایران

10.22034/irr.2020.163066

چکیده

پولشویی فرایندی است که به عنوان جرمی ثانویه بعد از ارتکاب جرایمی مقدمی اتفاق افتاده و می تواند در نظام پولی کشور ها نیز نمود یابد. از طرفی ادله اثبات در جرم به موجب یک دادرسی عادلانه اصولی را القاء می کند که به واسطه این اصول رعایت حقوق متهم در این فرایند را الزامی می سازد. بار اثبات دلیل در جرم پولشویی به موجب قوانین داخلی و بین الملل رویکرد های متفاوتی را القاء می کند. کنوانسیون ﻭﻳﻦ در ابتدا با فرض بی گناهی و تمسک به اصل برائت لوازم منطقی اثبات جرم پولشویی را بر عهده مقام تعقیب می داند. این در حالی است که در بند 7 ماده 5 این کنوانسیون، برای اثبات منشأ دارایی و عواید و سایر اموال ادعایی، بار اثبات معکوس شده و بر عهده متهم قرار می گیرد. هر چند این سند بین المللی به دول عضو توصیه می کند ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺗﯽ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ. در ایران به موجب ماده 1 قانون مبارزه با پولشویی به دو تمهید متفاوت در حوزه اثباتی اشاره دارد. به عبارت دیگر از یک طرف اصل صحت را مورد توجه قرار می دهد و از طرفی دیگر به اماره تصرف اشاره دارد. بنابراین در رویکرد های تقنینی کشور نیز می توان اصل برائت و احراز و اثبات جرم از سوی مقام قضایی را واکاوی نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Proof of money laundering crime and its detection criteria in international and domestic documents of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • jasem rashidi 1
  • alireza saibani 3

1 PhD Student in Criminal Law and Criminology, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Law, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

چکیده [English]

Money laundering is a process that occurs as a secondary crime after committing primary crimes and can also be reflected in the monetary system of countries. On the other hand, the evidence in a crime, based on a fair trial, induces principles that require the observance of the rights of the accused in this process. The burden of proving money laundering under domestic and international law suggests different approaches. Convention ﻭﻳﻦ initially presupposes the evidence of innocence and reliance on the principle of the innocence of the rationale for proving money laundering. However, in paragraph 7 of Article 5 of this Convention, in order to prove the origin of property and income and other claimed property, the burden of proof is reversed and it is the responsibility of the accused. However, this international document recommends to member states ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺗﯽ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ. In Iran, according to Article 1 of the Anti-Money Laundering Law, there are two different provisions in the field of evidence. In other words, on the one hand, it pays attention to the principle of correctness, and on the other hand, it refers to the possession statistic. Therefore, in the legislative approaches of the country, the principle of innocence and proving a crime by a judicial official can be investigated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Money laundering
  • international conventions
  • international organized crime
عباسی، اصغر، (1385)، بررسی مساعی بین المللی در زمینه مبارزه با پولشویی و رویکرد نظام حقوق ایران در قبال آن، رساله دکتری، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران.
میر شکاری، عباس، (1389)، تحلیل بار اثبات در جرم پولشویی، ماهنامه کانون، ش114.
Andrew Clark and Peter Burrell, )2003(, A practitioner’s Guide to International Money Laundering Law & Regulation
Bell, R (2006) Proving the Criminal Origin of Property in Money – Laundering Prosecutions, Journal of Money Laundering Control, Vol,4.
Blackaby, Nigel, Partasides, (2015) Constantine, Redfern, Alan, Hunter, J. Martin, Redfern and Hunter on International Arbitration, 6th ed., Oxford University Press 2015: p 17 E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com/).
Born, Gary, (2014) International Commercial Arbitration, Vol. I–III, 2nd edition, Kluwer Law International, E-book, p; 3534, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com/); Gaillard and Savage, Ibid, p 987.
Born, Gary, (2014), International Commercial Arbitration, Vol. I–III, 2nd edition, Kluwer Law International 2014, E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com/)p;270; Hwang and Lim.
Coello Hedberg, Christoffer, (2016), International Commercial Arbitration and Money Laundering, Master’s Thesis in International Commercial Arbitration 30 ECTS.
Dissenting opinion of Justice Kennedy, p. 9 in United States v. Bajakajian,
Gaillard, Emmanuel and Savage, John (eds.),(1999), Fouchard Gaillard Goldman on International  Commercial Arbitration, Kluwer Law International, 1999. E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com/).
Hobér, Kaj,(2011), International Commercial Arbitration in Sweden, Oxford University Press.
Hwang, Michael S.C. and Lim, Kevin,(2013), Corruption in Arbitration Law and Reality, in Hwang, Michael S.C., Selected Essays on International Arbitration ,p;584; Academy Publishing 2013. [Hwang and Lim]
ICC Case No. 14920; Ziadé, Nassib, (2015), Adressing Allegations and Finding of Corruption, in Baizeau, Domitille and Kreindler, Richard H. (eds.), Addressing issues of Corruption in Commercial and Investment Arbitration, Dossiers of the ICC Institute of World Business Law, Vol. 13, p;119,  Kluwer Law International 2015. E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com)
Kendra, Thomas and Bonini, Anna, (2014), Dealing with Corruption Allegations in Investment Arbitration: Reaching a Procedural Consensus? Journal of International Arbitration, Vol. 31, Issue 4, pp. 439–453, Kluwer Law International, E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com/),p;451.
Kreindler, Richard H., and Gesualdi Francesca, (2015), The Civil Law Consequences of Corruption under the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts: An Analysis in Light of International Arbitration Practice, in Bonell, Michael Joachim and Meyer, Olaf, The Impact of Corruption on International Commercial Contracts, p;19
Mills, Karen K.,(2003), Corruption and Other Illegality in the Formation and Performance of Contracts and in the Conduct of Arbitration Relating Thereto, in Albert Jan van den Berg (ed.), International Commercial Arbitration: Important Contemporary Questions, ICCA Congress Series, Vol. 11, Kluwer Law International 2003, pp. 289-299. E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com/),p;294.
Rose, Cecily, (2014), Questioning the Role of International Arbitration in the Fight Against Corruption, Journal of International Arbitration, Vol. 31, Issue 2, p; 216, Kluwer Law International 2014. E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com).
Schwarz, Franz T., and Konrad, Christian W., (2009), The Vienna Rules: A Commentary on International Arbitration in Austria, Kluwer Law International 2009. E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com/),p;143
See; Global Arbitration Report, Watchdogs or Bloodhounds (2014), Is it an Arbitrators Role to Sniff out Corruption? GAR Vol. 9, Issue 3, Global Arbitration Report.
United Nations Commentary on the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotroic, 1988: 135-139.
Waincymer, Jeff, (2012), Procedure and Evidence in International Arbitration, Kluwer Law International 2012. E-book, accessed through Kluwer Arbitration Online Database, available at: (http://www.kluwerarbitration.com/).