تاثیر انقلاب‌های عربی بر سیاست‌گذاری خارجی ترکیه (بر مبنای نظریه نقش)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم سیاسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

چکیده

اصل عدم دخالت در مسائل خاورمیانه، به عنوان اولویت سیاست­گذاری خارجی ترکیه در بیشتر دوران قرن بیستم مطرح بود. اما در طول دهه گذشته، ترکیه به طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای از سنّت کمالیستی و درون‌گرای خود فاصله گرفته و نقشی فعّال در منطقه اتخاذ نموده است. از این رو، بعد از قدرت­گیری حزب عدالت و توسعه در سال 2002، ترکیه در چارچوب رویکرد مشکلِ صفر با همسایگان، روابط نزدیکی را با رقبای دیرینه خود، یعنی سوریه، ایران و عراق برقرار نمود، در سازمان همکاری اسلامی نقش رهبری به خود گرفت، در کنفرانس‌های اتحادیه عرب حضور یافت و به نیروهای سازمان ملل مستقر در لبنان کمک کرد. همچنین آنکارا در حل اختلافات بین رژیم اسرائیل و سوریه (2010-2008) و همین­طور پرونده هسته‌ای ایران نقش میانجی به خود گرفت. این تغییر در سیاست‌گذاری خارجی ترکیه و پیرو آن تعریف نقش‌های جدید در سایه تحولات سیاسی خاورمیانه از سال 2011 که باعث بروز اعتراضات و سرنگونی برخی حکومت‌های این منطقه شد، بیشتر حائز اهمیت بوده و تغییراتی را نه تنها در سیاست­های ترکیه بلکه در کشورهای منطقه به وجود آورده است. بنابراین، این پژوهش به دنبال بررسی سیاست­گذاری خارجی ترکیه در چارچوب نظریه نقش از طریق سوال اصلی ذیل است: «قیام­های عربی چه تاثیری بر برداشت­های نقشی سیاست­گذاری خارجی ترکیه در قبال خاورمیانه داشته است؟» بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضرمبتنی بر روش اسنادی و کتابخانه‌ای،  بر این فرض استوار است که «قیام­های عربی موجب تغییر در برداشت­های نقش ملی بر مبنای قدرت نرم ترکیه به سوی برداشت‌های مادی و سخت نقش ملی در قبال خاورمیانه شده است». لذا، هدف این نوشتار شناخت نقش­های تعریف شده ترکیه در سیاستگذاری خارجی پیشین خود و تبیین تاثیر تحولات سیاسی خاورمیانه در نقش­های جدید در سیاست‌گذاری خارجی این کشور است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Arabic revolutions impact on Turkish foreign policy (Based on Role theory)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tehereh Ebrahimi Far 1
  • Hamed Yaghoubi Far 2

1 Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch

2 PhD Student of Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch

چکیده [English]

The principle of non-interference in the Middle Eastern issues was the priority of Turkey’s foreign policy strategy during most of the twentieth century. However, over the past decade, Turkey has considerably distanced from its Kemalist and introspective tradition and has become one of the active and influential actors in the region. Consequently, subsequent to the Justice and Development Party coming to power in 2002, Turkey in the framework of the strategy of zero problems with neighbors, established closer relationships with its ancient rivals, namely Syria, Iran and Iraq, adopted the leadership role in the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, attended the Arab League conferences and helped United Nations Interim Forces in Lebanon. In the same vein, Ankara took on the role of mediator in resolving disputes between Israel and Syria (2008-2010) as well as Iran’s nuclear file. Thus, the question is that, based on such an approach, how can this new Turkish foreign policy be described and understood towards recent developments in the region.Therefore, it is tried to study the foreign policymaking of Turkey within the framework of Role Theory through the main question: “what are the impacts of Arab Revolutions on the role conceptions of Turkish foreign policymaking in the Middle East?” Accordingly, the hypothesis of this research is “the Arab Revolutions have resulted in the national role conceptions of Turkey in regard to the Middle East”.Thus, this article is an attempt to enlighten the roles of Turkey in its new foreign policy-making in the region and towards the recent uprisings in the Middle East through addressing the underneath effective layers that changed Turkey from its previous strategy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Turkey's Foreign Policy
  • making
  • Role Theory
  • Arab revolutions
  • Identity

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